Tennessee Academy of Science Collegiate Division
Western Regional Meeting 2005
 Program and Abstracts
E-mail:
malinda@cbu.edu
Phone: 901-321-3445
FAX: 901-321-4433
Meeting:  19 March 2005
Christian Brothers University
650 East Parkway South
Memphis, TN 38104
 
TAS Collegiate Div. Western Regional at CBU
Meeting Program: 
 
Award Ribbon

Follow 
these 
Links
to see
Abstracts
for each Session

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Go to the index to locate a particular presentor

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Meeting location
CBU in Memphis
  • CBU Student Research Poster Session 19 April 2005. 11:00-2:00 in the Thomas Center East Lounge, CBU

  •  
  • 2006 TAS Collegiate Div. Meeting, scheduled for the third Saturday in March, will be hosted by the Graduate School at Univ. Tenn College of Health Sciences in Memphis.  Contact Dr. Eldridge Johnson, Dept. Anat. & Neuro. (ejohnson@utmem.edu
  •  

    Above: Most of the Student Researchers who
    presented papers at the 2005 TAS meeting.

    Above: Most of the CBU students who
    presented papers at the 2005 TAS meeting.
    Program:  TAS@CBU 2005
    Saturday, 19 March 2005
    Registration

    8:00-8:40 am
    Buckman Hall
    Lobby, CBU

    • Registration (coffee and doughnuts):  8:00-8:40 am, Saturday morning, 19 March 2005

    • Lobby of Buckman Hall, CBU
      There is a $10 registration fee.  Lunch is provided to all registrants.
    Opening
    Remarks
    8:45 am
    Montesi
    Buckman Hall
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    Keynote Address
    • Opening Remarks:  8:45 am in Montesi, Buckman Hall
      • Dr. Anthony Aretz, Academic V.P., Christian Brothers University
    • Introduction of the Keynote speaker: 
      • Dr. Malinda Fitzgerald, Associate Professor of Biology, CBU
    • Keynote Address: 
      • Ed Chaum, M.D. Ph.D., UT Department of Ophthalmology.  "Lost in Translational Research"
      |Return to Program Contents|
    Dr. Tony Aretz welcomes the participants to CBU.
    Dr. Fitzgerald introduces Dr. Ed Chaum.
    Dr. Ed Chaum presented the Keynote Address.


     Return to Program Contents Photo Gallery #1
       
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    Session One
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    Animal
    Behavior,
    Memory,
    Integrals,
    and
    Environmental
    Biology

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    Session One
    9:45-12:00
    Room 111
    Buckman
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    Session One,
    continued
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    Session One:   Animal Behavior, Memory, Integrals, 
    and Environmental Biology
    Moderator: Bro. Edward Salgado, Chair, CBU Biology
    9:45-12:00    Room 111, Buckman
  • 9:45   MANED-WOLF ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION IN EMAS NATIONAL PARK.

  • Jennifer Longo*1, Sara Lynch*1, Leandro Silveira2 and Anah Jacomo2
    1Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University, Memphis TN, 2Emas National Park, Emas Brazil.
      The maned-wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, is an endangered resident species of Emas National Park, located in the southwest corner of Goias, Brazil.  From June 4 to July 18, 2004, data on home-range and diet of maned-wolves was collected in cooperation with a larger, long-term project.  The purpose of the study was to broaden our understanding of maned-wolf ecology and raising awareness for the conservation of this species.  During this study a total of seven maned-wolves were captured 27 times for radio-collaring and collection of biological data.  Nine additional animals had been collared previously.  Average home-range size of the 16 individuals was 1,247.34 hectares (7,616.04 acres), and their food habits revealed to be of a generalist carnivore, where animal and plant matter was consumed regularly.  Data will be presented describing their habitat and the surrounding agricultural area and the need for conservation of these carnivores. 
      Supported by: NIH and Fogarty International, Minority International Research Training Program (TW 00123-S2), and Conservacão International Brazil.
  • 10:00   RESPIRATION STUDY OF THE MEMPHIS ZOO’S GIANT PANDAS.

  • Jennifer M. Bernard*1, Meghan M. Carr2, 1Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN and the 2Memphis Zoo, Memphis TN.
      The objective of this study was to analyze the respiration rates of resting giant pandas in order to understand metabolic rates.  The higher an animal’s metabolism is the more oxygen it will use.  Since a metabolic chamber cannot be used to measure oxygen consumed in the Memphis Zoo’s giant pandas, respiration rates were used to indicate the metabolic rate of the subjects.  The female showed relatively consistent respiration rates throughout the study while the male showed a tendency to decrease average respiration rates 60 minutes after feeding.  The causes of the differences were not determined, but could be linked to various factors, such as age, health, size, or sex. 
      Supported by:  The Assisi Foundation, Biodiversity Fellowship.
  • 10:15   COMPARING DATA COLLECTION PROTOCOLS OF MULTI-WEEKLY ACTIVITY BUDGETS OF MZS MALE PANDA FOR WINTER 2005. 

  • Sally Lynch*1, and Meghan Carr21Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN. and the 2 Memphis Zoo, Memphis, TN.
      The Giant Panda is one of many endangered species being housed and studied at the Memphis Zoo.  Currently, the male individual living at the zoo (M466) is under careful watch for reasons concerning breeding season and diet studies.  This animal’s daily activity budget is of great interest to researchers who are monitoring hormone levels and dietary intake and output.  Data collection protocols for these daily budgets is subject to change based on the following comparison of the current protocol, which requires that 10-Minute scans be conducted to gather specific activity occurrences, and a newly suggested protocol that collects data based on random scans over an 11-Hour period.  The following comparison is based on four weeks (January 3- January 30, 2005) of data which was collected using both protocols via a camera-recording system.  Statistical analyses were conducted using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel Statistics for a Stratified Table and Chi-square table. 
      Supported by:  The Assisi Foundation, Biodiversity Fellowship.
  • 10:30   ADRENERGIC MODULATION OF THE RAT’S AVOIDANCE RESPONSE IN THE ELEVATED PLUS MAZE. 

  • Kelley Ward*1, C.Anzini2 and Antonio P.Carobrez2. 1Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN. 2Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil.
      The elevated plus maze (EPM) is an animal model of anxiety based on the spontaneous behavior of the rat in a single 5 min trial.  However, when re-evaluating rats on a Trial 2 session (24 h after), in the EPM, a previous learned experience from Trial 1 will increase the avoidance response (AR). To test the hypothesis that the experience in the EPM Trial 1 would be mediated by the activation of ß-adrenergic receptors, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, Wistar rats were injected (IP) with propranolol (PROP; 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) prior to Trial 1 and were retested (Trial 2) undrugged in the EPM.  PROP-treated rats showed an increased open arm entries (OAE) and time (OAT), suggesting an anxiolytic-like (anti-aversive) effect in Trial 1. In Trial 2 the rats from PROP group, performed equal to experimental naïve control rats, suggesting a blockade of the AR elicited by PROP. In Experiment 2, naïve rats were injected with PROP 20 mg/kg prior to Trial 1.  Trial 2 they were treated (IP) with either saline or midazolam (MDZ; 0,25 mg/kg) thirty minutes before submission into the EPM. In trial 2, MDZ-treated rats showed a reliable anxiolytic-like effect shown by an increased OAE and OAT, when compared to saline-treated rats. Therefore, PROP reinstated the anxiolytic properties of the MDZ, known to be blocked in saline-treated subjects. The above results suggest that the PROP blockade of ascending stress-related information, in Trial 1 impairs the rat to acquire and retain the AR characteristic of the EPM task. 
      Supported by: NIH and Fogarty International, Minority International Research Training Program (TW 00123-S2).
  • 10:45 THE ROLE OF INTERLEUKIN-16 IN MOTOR LEARNING. 

  • Bradley W. Petkovich*, Jay A. Blundon,  Catherine P. Fenster. Department of Biology, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN.
      Neuronal interleukin-16 (NIL-16) is expressed specifically in the hippocampus and cerebellum, brain regions associated with certain forms of learning.  NIL-16 can be enzymatically cleaved to result in neuronal secretion of IL-16; thus, NIL-16 is a precursor of IL-16, a cytokine associated with immune system functions.  We believe that, in the brain, IL-16 may be a signaling molecule that regulates learning processes.  The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that IL-16 plays a role in motor learning. To address the role of IL-16 in motor learning, we used an accelerating rotarod test to compare motor learning for IL-16 knock-out and wild-type mice.  Both groups were initially exposed to the rotarod (constant speed of 20 RPMS) for seven days.  During the learning phase (two trails per day for four days), the duration that mice remained on the accelerating rotarod (from 0 to 50 RPMs) was compared.  For the memory phase, the duration that mice remained on the accelerating rotarod following a week of non-exposure was compared.  No significant differences were observed between knock-out and wild-type mice on accelerating rotarod tests; however, we are currently performing additional behavioral tests to explore potential effects of IL-16 on motor learning. 
  • 11:00   ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF NIL-16 ON LONG TERM POTENTIATION IN MOUSE HIPPOCAMPAL SLICES. 

  • Jessica A. Devitt*, Catherine P. Fenster, and Jay A. Blundon.  Rhodes College, 2000 North Parkway, Memphis, TN.
       The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of neuronal interleukin-16 (NIL-16) on long term potentiation (LTP) in the mouse hippocampus.  Previous studies have reported that NIL-16 is found in the hippocampus, a brain region associated with learning and memory. We believe that NIL-16 may play a role in the LTP and the learning process.  The C-terminus of NIL-16 is identical to the cytokine pro-interleukin-16.  IL-16 knock-out mice show spatial memory deficits compared to their wild type siblings. Therefore, to test whether IL-16 secretion influences LTP, we performed electrophysiological tests on hippocampal slices from wild type and IL-16 knock-out mice.  Stimulating electrodes were placed in the CA3-Schaffer collateral pathway and the recording electrode was placed in the CA1 dendrite region.  After baseline low frequency (0.033 Hz) postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) were recorded, a frequency tetanus stimulation was administered, followed by low frequency stimulation for 60 minutes.  If the slope of the post-tetanus PSP was significantly greater than the slope of the pre-tetanus PSP, we concluded that LTP had occurred.  Although we had hypothesized that LTP would be reduced with the absence of IL-16, we found no significant differences in LTP between the wild type and IL-16 knock-out mice.
  • Award Ribbon11:15   USING THE MONTE CARLO TECHNIQUE TO SOLVE TOUGH INTEGRALS. 

  • Paul Sinclair* and Shubo Banerjee. Department of Physics, Rhodes College. 
      Research into the condensation of ionic systems requires calculating a six dimensional integral that relates the number of free ions to the number of neutral molecules.  Regular methods of integration, such as using the software Mathematica prove inadequate.  Instead we use Monte Carlo Integration that uses random sampling of the integrand to estimate its average. Multiplying by the limits of integration for each variable then yields an estimate of the integral with accuracy that depends on the number of sampled points.  The process is easily expanded to multiple dimensions and gains in accuracy over other methods (for the same computation time) as the number of dimensions increase. The error is estimated by looking at the variation in the final answer for different trials.  We wrote a C++ program to evaluate our integral. To generate random numbers for sampling we used a random number generator called the Mersenne Twister. Due to the severely “spiked” nature of the integrand, we developed weighting methods for each variable to get a better sampling of the spikes and thus reduce sampling errors.  Running the final program for 125,000,000 sampled points and 100 trials at each value of temperature, we achieved accuracy to within 0.2%.
  • 11:30   ENVIRONMENTAL EDGE AND RESOURCE GRADIENTS IN PLANTS 

  • Karla L. Gage*, Melissa B. Lee, and Maciej Biernacki.  Department of Biology, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.
      Traditionally edge effect is a concept related to qualitative differences between core environments.  However, where two core environments meet, there are quantitative graded changes in the most basic resources that plants require, including light, temperature, and soil moisture.  Resource availability changes nonlinearly over space as the two core environments blend.  Temporal dynamic changes occur as a result of diurnal and seasonal cycles.  Plants will respond to changes in resource gradients and may be used as bioindicators of the availability of resources along the edge by analyses of the timing of phenological stages.  Bioindicators may allow  quantification of the width of gradients between two core environments.  Changes in gradients of resource availability over time may be measured quantitatively.  In a controlled study, three treatment groups were established to represent the continuum of resource availability in edge systems.  Plant response was evaluated in each.  Preliminary data will be presented.
  • Award Ribbon11:45 PLANT RESOURCE ALLOCATION:  PROJECTED SURFACE AREA

  • Melissa B. Lee*, Karla Gage, and Maciej Biernacki.  Department of Biology, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.
    The well-being of a plant may be assessed by a variety of quantitative measures.  Recent studies suggest that patterns of resource allocation may be better reflected by measures of plant leaf and root surface areas rather than traditional measures of biomass.  Surface areas reflect the area of interaction a plant has with the surrounding environment.   Comparative studies have indicated that evaluation of the projected surface area is an accurate and precise method of measuring plant performance.  The objective of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate plant performance using several measures including aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, projected leaf surface area, leaf surface area, and root surface area.  Plants were evaluated periodically using both destructive and nondestructive techniques.  Statistical analyses identified significant relationships among quantitative parameters of plant growth.  There were significant relationships found between leaf surface area and other plant growth parameters. Leaf and root surface areas were ranked in most analyses as the most responsive plant traits. Statistically significant relationships among quantitative plant characteristics allow for development of nondestructive, species specific procedures to evaluate nondestructively plant resource allocation patterns, plant health, productivity, and allow for objective inter-study comparisons. 
    Session One ends at 12:00
    Lunch served at 12:15 in Montesi, Buckman Hall
      |Return to Program Contents|                        Photo Gallery #1
     
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    Session Two
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    Reproductive
    Biology
    and
    Molecular
    Expression

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    Session Two 
    9:45-12:15 
    Room 102
    Buckman
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    Session Two:  Reproductive Biology and Molecular Expression
    Moderator: Dr. Malida Fitzgerald, CBU Biology
    9:45-12:15   Room 102, Buckman
  • 9:45   ESTERASE ISOZYMES OF Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis: DEVELOPMENTAL ONTOGENY AND TISSUE SPECIFICITY

  • Cheri Kimes*, Jamie Walker, Melvin Beck, and Charles Biggers.  Department of Biology, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.
      The objective of the present study was to characterize the general esterases of Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis on the basis of their tissue and ontogenetic developmental distribution.  Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with alpha- and beta-naphthyl acetate as substrates revealed six general esterase isozymes (Esterase 1-6) in whole body homogenates of larvae, pupae, and adults and tissue extracts (alimentary canal, fat body, Malpighian tubules, and salivary glands) of T. ephemeraeformis.  Variations in isozyme patterns occurred during developmental stages, indicating differential gene expression and/or epigenetic modification of the isozymes to meet the metabolic needs of the different developmental stages.  There appeared to be some isozyme variation within the same developmental stage.  The isozyme pattern in larvae was more complex than that of the pupae or adults.  Each larval tissue showed a characteristic esterase pattern that is probably correlated with the functional role of the isozymes.  The midgut and hindgut of the larval alimentary canal exhibited the most complex esterase profile, which would indicate that some of the esterase isozymes have a digestive function.
  • 10:00   COMPARISON OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL ONTOGENY OF ISOZYMES IN Tribolium confusum AND Tribolium castaneum

  • Victoria K. Lo* and Melvin L. Beck.  Department of Biology, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.
      The objective of this study was to compare the developmental ontogeny of alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPD), esterase (EST), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) isozymes in Tribolium confusum and T. castaneum.  Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed on whole body homogenates of larvae, pupae, and adults of each species followed by appropriate histochemical staining.  A single zone of alpha-GPD activity occurred in larvae and pupae of both species.  No detectable alpha-GPD was found in adults of either species.  Differences were observed in the esterase electrophoretic profiles between the two species and among the developmental phases for T. castaneum, indicating genes activity related to specific developmental stages.  T. confusum did not display ontogenetic changes for esterases. The esterase activity was dramatically lower in all developmental stages of T. castaneum, when compared to similar stages in T. confusum.  We found differences in gene activity among developmental stages for LAP for both species, but the electrophoretic profiles for LAP were more similar between the two species than for either alpha-GPD or esterases.
  • 10:15   ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION AND HORMONAL INDUCTION OF SPAWNING IN THE ENDANGERED WYOMING TOAD (Bufo baxteri).

  • Robert K.Browne1, Jessica Seratt*2, Carrie K Vance3, and Andy J Kouba1. 1 Memphis Zoo, 2000 Prentiss Place, Memphis, TN, 2 Mississippi State University, and 3 Department of Biology, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN
      Endangered Wyoming toad hormonal induction of male and female gametes is administered as a single dose of one hormone. Female spawning (fertilization) is often low or absent with low viability. Using female Wyoming toads, we tested a combination of human chorionic gonodatrophin (hCG) and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) administered in zero, one or two priming doses. Females were spawned separate from males, and oocytes were fertilized in vitro with hormonally induced sperm from several males. Unprimed females produced no oocytes. Spawning  of females occurred with 70% with one priming and 88% with two primings. Over the total spawning period (1.5-23 hrs post-induction) higher spawn numbers occurred with two primings (25,721), versus one (13,320). During the period with fertile oocytes (11.5-17 hrs post-induction), spawn numbers were 2871 ± 154 and 1439 ± 175, respectively. During the fertile period the percent fertilizations were not significantly higher in toads receiving two primings vs. one (12.7 ± 1.2% vs. 6.4 ± 1.4%). Nevertheless, lower mortality from two primings resulted in a significantly greater (P<0.05) percent neurulation (9.5 ± 1.0%; 1.9 ± 0.5%) and swim-up (6.9 ± 0.8%; 0.82 ± 0.04%), resulting in 84 tadpoles with one priming, and 2300 tadpoles with two.
      Supported by: Conservation Action Network (CAN) of the Memphis Zoo.
  • 10:30   EXAMINATION OF THE ROLE OF GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS AND THE INTEGRIN alpha5beta1 IN CD9 MEDIATED CELL MOTILITY. 

  • Whitney M. Appling*1, Jayaprakash Kotha2, Lisa K Jennings21 Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN and 2 Vascular Biology Center of Excellence and Department of Medicine, Department of Molecular Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.
      Overexpression of tetraspanin CD9 in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell expression model system promotes haptotactic cell migration to the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin (FN).  In the current report, we investigated the possible role of serum-containing growth factors and a CD9 molecular partner, integrin alpha5beta1, in CD9 promoted cell migration.  CD9 expressing CHO cells (A6) retained their characteristic pro-migratory phenotype even after culturing in 1% serum media for 18 hrs, suggesting that CD9 promoted migration is due to CD9 influence on adhesion molecules rather than growth factor receptor activity. Integrin alpha5beta1 mediates adhesive functions of cells such as cell migration on FN.  Altered expression or activity of alpha5beta1 dramatically affects the phenotypic properties of cells on FN. Since alpha5beta1 is expressed on CHO cells and serves as the major FN receptor, we investigated possible regulation of alpha5beta1 function by CD9 in promoting cell migration. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that cell surface density of integrin alpha5beta1 was not significantly altered because of CD9 over-expression. An anti-alpha5beta1 monoclonal antibody (PB1), earlier shown to inhibit the functions of alpha5beta1 on FN, selectively inhibited CD9 promoted cell migration.  These data suggest that CD9 positively modulates alpha5beta1 interactions with the ECM ligand FN. 
      Supported by a grant from American Heart Association, Southeast Affiliate to Lisa K Jennings, Ph.D.
  • 10:45   STRUCTURAL EVALUATION OF THE N-TERMINAL REGION OF CHOLINE BINDING PROTEIN A, THE MAJOR ADHESIN OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE

  • Ross W. Hilliard1* and Richard W. Kriwacki21 Department of Biology, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN and 2 Department of Structural Biology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.
      Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains a significant health threat worldwide, especially to the young and old. While some of the biomolecules involved in pneumococcal pathogenesis are known and understood in mechanistic terms, little is known about the molecular details of bacterium/host interactions. Our work is focused on understanding how the major adhesin, a protein called CbpA, binds to and causes pneumococcal invasion of human cells.  Here we report the results of experiments aimed at determining the 3D structure of the N-terminal domain of CbpA.  We are optimizing CbpA-N for study using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using biochemical methods.  We previously identified significant unstructured regions using NMR in an N-terminal construct comprised of CbpA residues 39-174.  These unstructured regions increase the level of difficulty in determining the protein structure using NMR.  To reduce such interference we used proteases to trim away unstructured amino acids, leaving only the folded core of CbpA-N.  We used mass spectrometry and computer methods to identify disordered regions of CbpA-N and then designed an optimized construct.  We report here the results of these studies along with the work currently underway as a result of the structural determinations.
      This work was supported by the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC), The Rhodes College/St. Jude Summer Plus Program (RH, sponsored by Robert and Ruby Priddy Charitable Trust), the National Cancer Institute (RWK), and a Cancer Center (CORE) Support Grant CA 21765 (SJCRH). 
  • Award Ribbon11:00   GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS (GBS) INDUCES CASPASE-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS OF RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS. 

  • Monica Huerta*1, Glen Ulett2, Elisabeth Adderson21 Department of Biology, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN and 2 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Memphis, TN. 
      GBS is an important cause of neonatal pneumonia and sepsis. Infection of respiratory epithelial cells by GBS induces cell injury, a process that contributes to bacterial invasion. To identify the nature of this cytotoxicity, we characterized cell death pathways activated by GBS infection using a serotype III strain, 874391, and its isogenic beta-hemolysin-deficient mutant, CylE-.  A549 respiratory epithelial cells were infected at a ratio of 5:1 (bacteria:cell) for 4 hours. Numbers of eukaryotic cells undergoing apoptosis were determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis using AnnexinV-FITC and propidium iodide stains in the presence or absence of 5% glycine and with increasing concentrations of the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD.  Infection of A549 cells with wild type GBS 874391 resulted in a reduction in numbers of viable cells within 4 hours. The percentage of viable A549 cells infected with the beta-hemolysin deficient strain CylE did not differ from that of uninfected controls. Pretreatment of epithelial cells with glycine to inhibit necrosis did not increase the viability of GBS-infected cells, however, Ac-DEVD treatment reduced the number of cells undergoing apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner.  Infection of A549 respiratory epithelial cells with serotype III GBS induces rapid cell death. As previously suggested, most cytotoxicity is attributable to the expression of GBS beta-hemolysin. Cell death induced by GBS infection is caspase-3 dependent and involvement of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis is suggested. Inhibition of cell death pathways induced by GBS may be a novel strategy to reduce the morbidity and mortality of neonatal pneumonia.
  • 11:15   ENGINEERING A C-1 MUTATION IN THE PRESTIN GENE OF OUTER HAIR CELLS.

  • Manish Patel*1, Jiangiang Gao2, and Jian Zuo21 Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN. and 2 St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Department of Developmental Neurobiology, Memphis, TN.
      It is known that outer hair cells (OHCs) of the mammalian cochlea actively change their cell length in response to changes in membrane potential.  This electromotility, thought to be the basis of cochlear amplification, is mediated by a voltage sensitive motor molecule recently identified as the membrane protein prestin.  The cell loss and reduction in soma length of OHCs seen in prestin-knockout mice suggests that other active mechanism(s) (such as that conferred by the active movements of hair bundles, observed in lower vertebrates) might have been compromised. To provide definitive evidence that no active forces other than OHC electromotility exist in OHCs, we will generate and characterize prestin-knockin mice in which a crucial mutation (C1) is introduced in the endogenous prestin gene. The C1 mutation in the prestin gene results in a reduced or non-motile yet structurally intact protein in vitro.  We will determine whether this mutation abolishes OHC electromotility and cochlear amplification without causing cell loss and reduction of soma length of OHCs, to confirm that prestin-mediated OHC electromotility is the only active mechanism by which cochlear amplification is generated. In this research the first stages of the knock-in procedure was accomplished in which a stem cell clone was produced with the C1 mutation.  This mutation was accomplished by stem-cell transfection of an engineered vector with the C1 mutation.  Genomic southern analysis confirmed the knock-in procedure. 
      Supported by 5 R25 CA23944 and P30 CA-21765 from the National Cancer Institute and by the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC)

  • 11:30   AMPA-TYPE GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS IN THE OCULOMOTOR NUCLEI OF RAT AND PIGEON BRAIN. 

  • Adriane D. Wilkinson*1, Cláudio A.B.Toledo2, Raquel S. Pires2, Malinda  E.C Fitzgerald1,3, and Anton J. Reiner31 Christian Brothers University, Department of Biology, Memphis, TN, 2 City University of São Paulo, Department of Neuroscience, São Paulo, Brazil and 3 University of Tennessee, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Memphis, TN.
      Glutamate has been identified as the primary excitatory neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, and it plays an important role in the mediation of synaptic transmission.  It may be involved in activation of the cranial motor nuclei to promote rapid responses, as required in many motor reflexes.  These actions can be performed through AMPA-type glutamate receptors, which are ionotropic and endorse fast neural reaction.  Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were performed using pigeon and rat brains to investigate the localization of the subunits which constitute the tetrameric structure of these receptors within the oculomotor nuclear complex (CNIII).  We used antibodies against subunits GluR1, GluR4, and a third one (GluR2/3), which recognize a common epitope of the GluR2 and GluR3 subunits. We also used specific complementary RNA (cRNA) probes to chick subunits of the AMPA-type receptors to perform the in situ analysis.  The immunohistochemical investigation showed very few labels for the GluR1 and GluR2/3 subunits at the CNIII area.  Results for the GluR4 subunit, however, did display positive immunoreactivity with many neurons at the CNIII clearly expressing GluR4. In situ hybridization results agreed with our statement above indicating positive labeling of the four-glutamate subunits (GluR1-4) with intensities ranging from light to intense.  These results together suggest that subunits of the AMPA-type ionotropic receptor are expressed at neurons in the CNIII.  Data also suggest that glutamate mediates synaptic transmissions within this region of the central nervous system, and that this transmission is mainly a result of the receptor type holding the GluR4 subunit. 
      Supported by: NIH and Fogarty International, Minority International Research Training Program (TW 00123-S2), EY-05298 (AJR) and FAPESP (Brazil, CT).
  • 11:45   THE GLUTAMIC-384 AND GLUTAMINE-384 VARIANT OF THE BETA 1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR EXHIBIT CONSTITUTIVE ACTIVITY AND DIFFERENTIATE COUPLING OF G-PROTEIN. 

  • Amar Bhula*1, Sulieman Bahouth2, Noel Delos Santos2, and Lidia Gardener21 Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN and 2 Department of Pharmacology, University of TN Center for Health Sciences, Memphis, TN.
      The Beta 1 adrenergic receptor is a major mediator of catecholamine effects in the human heart. It is the principal subtype of Beta adrenergic receptors regulating human heart rate and contractility.  Stimulation of the Beta 1 adrenergic receptor by catecholamines results in the activation of the heterotrimeric G-protein, which, in turn, activates the enzyme, adenylyl cyclase, and promotes the production of cyclic AMP.  Increased production of cyclic AMP provides a greater risk of heart failure due to increase in heart rate and contractility.  Blockade of the Beta 1 adrenergic receptor has proved to be effective in the treatment of chronic heart failure. Mutating the receptor, through site directed mutagenesis, allows a better understanding of variant receptor activity. Two variants of the beta receptor were tested in this experiment and were compared to the wild type receptor by measuring the accumulation of the second messenger, cyclic AMP.  Compared to the wild type receptor which has arginine at the 384 position, both types of variants, the glutamic acid and glutamine receptors, both demonstrated characteristic features of constitutively active receptors.  Both variant types increased adenylyl cyclase enzyme activity compared to the wild type receptor.  The glutamic acid variant showed similar amounts of cyclic AMP as did the wild type prior to receptor stimulation.  The glutamine variant showed a much higher increase in enzyme activation compared to the wild type. In addition, adenylyl cyclase activity had increased prior to the addition of agonist.  Mutating the beta adrenergic receptor with the respective variants suggests that arginine at the receptor 384 position holds a prominent role in receptor-G protein interactions.  By mutating the wild type receptor at the 384 position from a basic residue to an acidic or neutral residue of similar mass results in an increase of downstream signaling events.
  • Award Ribbon12:00   DETERMINING NIL-16 AND KV4.2 INTERACTION AND REDUCING NIL-16 VIA SIRNA. 

  • Sinifunanya E. Nwaobi*, Jay A. Blundon, Catherine P. Fenster.  Department of Biology, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN.
    Neuronal Interleukin-16 (NIL-16) is a cytosolic protein found exclusively in the cerebellum and hippocampus. Previous studies have shown that NIL-16 contains PDZ domains which selectively interact with several neurotransmitter-gated and voltage-gated ion channels. It is hypothesized that the interaction of NIL-16 with these ion channels may serve to regulate channel function and/or localization. A direct and concise approach to investigate this hypothesis would be to observe the functional properties of these ion channels in neurons with normal or reduced NIL-16 expression.  We are currently developing a strategy for reducing expression levels of NIL-16 that utilizes small-interfering RNA (siRNA). This novel technique allows for specific gene silencing by targeting messenger RNA molecules containing an identical sequence for degradation. The degraded message is no longer functional in translation and the corresponding gene is silenced. Using immunocytochemistry, we demonstrate that siRNA targeting NIL-16 can effectively reduce levels of artificially expressed NIL-16 protein in human-embryonic cells. Future studies will include demonstrating silencing of NIL-16 in neurons and investigating the functional role of NIL-16 protein interactions in neurons.
    Session Two ends at 12:15 
    Lunch served at 12:15 in Montesi, Buckman Hall
       |Return to Program Contents|                        Photo Gallery #1
     
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    Session Three
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    Clinical Studies,
    Pharmacology,
    Hematology

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    Session Three
    9:45-12:15 
    Room 112
    Buckman
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    Session Three:  Clinical Studies, Pharmacology, Hematology
    Moderator:  Dr. Sandra Thompson-Jaeger, CBU Biology
    9:45-12:15  Room 112, Buckman
  • 9:45   INTERVENING FOR PREVENTION: A TEST-BASED APPROACH FOR SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE AWARENESS. 

  • Leonard I. Bloom and Angela D. Phillips*. University of Tennessee Health Science Center, College of Allied Health, Memphis, TN.
    The purpose of this study was to increase STD awareness in adolescents ages 14-19, particularly females.  A presentation was constructed and performed at an area high school and church youth group.  The session consisted of a pretest to gauge preexisting STD knowledge, a PowerPoint slide presentation giving the facts about gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HPV, and a posttest consisting of the same questions as the pretest, to determine how much information the students were able to retain.  The results showed an increase (9.4%) in the number of correct answers from the pretest to the posttest.  The presentation was effective in that the students were able to recall the information presented to them and answer questions correctly.
  • 10:00   FREQUENCY OF REPORTING OF CONCOMITANT SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN PATIENTS WHO ABUSE COCAINE IN PREGNANCY. 

  • Erica Hayes*1, Jay Bringman2,3, Risa Ramsey2, Robert Egerman2,3, Lu Kao2,3, Lucinda Delmar2,31 Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University Memphis, TN. 2 Department of OB/GYN, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN,  3 Regional Medical Center, Memphis, TN.
       We conducted a retrospective analysis of 100 hundred pregnant patients whose infants, upon delivery, had a positive urine drug screen for cocaine.  We sought to determine the incidence of reporting concomitant drug use in this group of individuals.  It has been reported by the National Institute on Drug abuse that women who admit to using cocaine admitted to using other drugs as well.  Drugs frequently used were alcohol and tobacco.
      The purpose of this study is not only to determine the occurrence of associated drug use, but also to treat cocaine users appropriately.  This is essential because cocaine causes patients to present with similar symptoms that present as a result of toxemia due to pregnancy.  For example, tachycardia, fever and high blood pressure are all congruent complications of pregnancy and cocaine abuse alike.  Because of these comparable symptoms, cocaine toxicology most often goes undiagnosed and thus untreated or perhaps mistreated.  From this study we anticipate obtaining a more efficient way to screen for cocaine toxicology. 
      Supported by: The Department for Maternal and Fetal Research University of TN Health Science Center, Memphis, TN. 
  • 10:15   RENAL DISEASE AFFECTING PREGNANCY COMPLICATED BY LUPUS 

  • Carrie McIvor1*, Robert Egerman2,3, Risa Ramsey2,3, Lu Kao2,3, and Lucinda Delmar2,3
    1 Department of Biology,  Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN, 2 Department of OB/GYN, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN and 3 Regional Medical Center, Memphis, TN.
      Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with deleterious effects on many organ systems. Renal dysfunction and long term impairment are significant hazards from SLE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate renal complications in pregnancies with a diagnosis of SLE at a large urban hospital. We reviewed the charts of gravida who had a diagnosis of SLE, seeking to describe the frequency of renal complications including hypertensive disease in these patients, as well as describe the clinical characteristics of this population. 
      Sixty-eight pregnancies with a diagnosis of SLE were studied retrospectively. Of the patients identified with SLE, 30 patients presented with hypertensive disease and 38 SLE patients were normotensive.  The average maternal age of the SLE pregnant patients presenting with a hypertensive disorder was 24 years, compared to the normotensive SLE pregnant patients of 26 years. Creatinine levels in patients with hypertensive disorders were elevated compared to creatinine levels in SLE patients without, 1.059mg/dL and 0.677mg/dL, respectively, reflecting a dual insult on renal function. Platelet counts in pregnant patients with SLE and hypertensive disease were similar compared to platelets of normotensive patients with SLE, 199.8/L and 199.7/L, respectively. 
      It is common for patients with SLE to have concomitant hypertensive disease. Recognition can prompt therapies to reduce the decline in renal function in pregnant women with SLE at risk. 
      Supported by:  Department of Maternal Fetal Research at the University of TN Center for Health Sciences, Memphis, TN.
  • 10:30   ROLE OF MRP4 IN TESTOSTERONE TRANSPORT. 

  • Matthew D. Cain*1, Rachel Bowden2, Mark Leslie2, John D. Schuetz2. 1 Department of Biology, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN and 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.
      The multidrug resistance-associated protein, MRP4 is an ATP-dependent binding cassette (ABC) transporter which belongs to a family of transporters linked to the efflux of various organic anions and nucleotides.  MRP4 is linked to the efflux of various such molecules including cAMP, cGMP, and the steroid conjugate, estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide (E217betaG).  In regards to drug resistance, MRP4 has been shown to efflux various chemotherapeutic agents, including topotecan, an anticancer agent, and 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine, two anticancer purine analogs.  Although, MRP4 is expressed in several tissues including the kidney, liver, brain, testes, and various others, little is known about the biological function of MRP4 in vivo.  Studying MRP4-deficient mice, it was observed that, prepubescently, these mice exhibited a decreased level of circulating testosterone.  However, post-pubescently, these mice exhibited normal testosterone levels.  We set out to discover the mechanisms by which testosterone levels normalized in these MRP4-deficient mice and discover MRP4’s role in the transportation of testosterone.  We discovered an increase in the expression of several related transporters and various steroidogeneic proteins, indicating a compensation in both testosterone production and transportation in the absence MPR4.
      This work was supported in part by the Rhodes College/St. Jude Summer Plus Program and funded by Robert and Ruby Priddy Charitable Trust.
  • Award Ribbon10:45   IRINOTECAN PHARMACOGENETIC STUDIES IN PEDIATRIC CANCER PATIENTS.

  • Christen N. Gregory*1 and Kristine R. Crews2. 1 Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN  and 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale St. Memphis, TN. 
      Irinotecan is an anti-cancer agent with efficacy against numerous pediatric tumors, yet its use is complicated by its significant gastrointestinal toxicity.  Irinotecan is a prodrug metabolized in vivo to the active metabolite, SN-38, which is glucuronidated via the UGT1A1 enzyme to SN-38 glucuronide.  It is speculated that variable interindividual UGT1A1 activity causes disparity in SN-38 glucuronidation, which may produce toxicity in pediatric cancer patients.  Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the ABCG2 gene may also increase the bioavailability and efficacy of irinotecan, since these SNPs have been associated with prolonged SN-38 exposure in tumor cells. This research examined the effect of UGT1A1 and ABCG2 genotypes (n= 60 and 21, respectively) on single-agent oral irinotecan pharmacokinetics in patients. Patient DNA samples were analyzed following PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Statistically significant differences were discovered in irinotecan clearance, irinotecan AUC, and total and lactone SN-38 glucuronide:SN-38 AUC ratio values between wild-type patients and patients with a polymorphism within the UGT1A1 gene. Discernable, yet non-significant, trends were discovered involving ABCG2 SNPs and irinotecan bioavailability. Throughout the course of this research, significant associations were discovered between UGT1A1 genotype and the irinotecan metabolic pathway. Our results suggested that including a larger sample size in future studies may reveal a stronger association between ABCG2 and irinotecan oral bioavailability. Ultimately, pre-treatment UGT1A1 and ABCG2 genotyping may be utilized to maximize the efficacy of irinotecan-based chemotherapeutic therapies. 
      This research was funded by grants 5 R25 CA23944 and P30 CA-21765 from the National Cancer Institute and by the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC).
  • 11:00  A STUDY OF THE PHARMACOKINETIC EFFECTS OF CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE ON MEDULLOBLASTOMA PATIENTS. 

  • Andrew Kovacs*1 and Burgess Freeman21 Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN and 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN. 
      Medulloblastoma is a malignant solid brain and spinal tumor that is most commonly found in the posterior fossa, which accounts for 20% of childhood brain tumors. Cyclophosphamide is an anti-tumor prodrug that is currently used for the treatment of solid tumors.  This drug must be broken down into the active metabolite hydroxycyclophosphamide in the liver by hepatic enzymes, cytochrome P450 CYP3A5 and CYP2C9 enzymes. Polymorphisms in the CYP3A5 and CYP2C9 subfamilies affect cyclophosphamide breakdown.  Specifically, the polymorphisms CYP3A5*3 and *6 cause almost no enzyme to be produced and CYP2C9*2 causes a decreased production of enzymes, while the *1 genotype (wild-type) allows for normal enzyme productivity. In this study, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital patients’ (n= 39) genotype were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DdeI and AvaII restriction analysis. The genotypic allele frequencies were compared using a Chi Square test to previously existing CYP3A5 and CYP2C9 studies. There was no statistical difference in p-values when the allele frequencies were compared to these other CYP3A5 and CYP2C9 studies meaning that our genotypic results are consistent for a given population.  In future studies, this genotypic information will be correlated with pharmacogenetic information regarding cyclophosphamide treatment-based protocols for these patients. By knowing each patient genotype in regard to the cytochrome P450 hepatic enzymes CYP3A5*3 and *6 and CYP2C9*2 polymorphisms, cyclophosphamide dosage may be specifically altered on a patient to patient scale. 
  • 11:15   SUPRANUCLEAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE LAMELLAE OF THE HUMAN INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. 

  • Shannon M. Winfrey1*, and Eldridge F. Johnson21 College of Allied Health Sciences University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Memphis, TN, and 2 Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of TN Center for Health Sciences, Memphis, TN. 
      Ten adult and one new born human lumbar intervertebral discs were examined by light microscopy in order to determine the connective tissue fiber organization of the annulus fibrosus, their relationship to the, hyaline cartilage end-plate and the nucleus pulposus interface and to elucidate the possible impact of this organization on differential diffusion rates of nutrients into the intervertebral disc. The more deeply situated annular lamellae abruptly change orientation, from an initially vertical direction, to a more horizontal incidence at the interface of the annulus fibrosus and the hyaline cartilage end-plate. Such lamellae were organized as horizontal stacks of supranuclear lamellae between the nucleus pulposus and the overlying hyaline cartilage end-plate. A given supranuclear lamella was arranged 90 degrees to those in contiguous lamellae. Supranuclear lamellae were not observed in more central regions of the nucleus pulposus and hyaline cartilage end plate interface. Although supra nuclear connective tissue fibers were observed in both the newborn and adult intervertebral discs, connective tissue fibers of a given lamella presented a less densely organized, arching or arcing configuration in the newborn in contrast to the parallel, more radially and compact organization of the adult.
  • Award Ribbon11:30   THE EFFECTS OF SXR RNA EXPRESSION IN CD4+ CELLS

  • Cynthia Caceres*1, Lorraine Sutton2, Michael L. Vetter2, Maria Pia De Pasquale2,3, Richard T. D’Aquila2,3. 1 Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN, and, 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology and 3 Division of Infectious Diseases, Dept. of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center,  Nashville, TN. 
      Successful anti-retroviral therapy for HIV has been unable to be accomplished due to many intervening factors including drug resistance.  Effectiveness of anti-retroviral drugs can be limited by virus-encoded drug resistance.  In addition, HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) often fail without mutations in the virus protease and it is hypothesized that this may be caused by PIs being expelled out of host cells for HIV CD4+ lymphocytes. Such cellular resistance may be mediated by P-glycoprotein, or PgP, a drug transporter that can efflux drugs including PIs out of cells.  Pgp is encoded by the MDR-1 gene, which is in turn activated by the orphan nuclear receptor Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor (SXR).  SXR is a member of the superfamily of nuclear receptors and has been described as a broad specificity sensing receptor.  Because of SXR’s role in activating the transcription of the MDR-1 gene and thus the amount of cell membrane PgP, we hypothesized that CD4+ cells with high levels of PgP should express high levels of SXR. We developed an assay to test for the presence of SXR RNA in CD4+ lymphocytes from PI-treated, HIV-infected patients using Real-Time PCR in order to start testing this hypothesis.  Primers, probe, and plasmid to generate a standard curve of defined copy numbers were designed and tested. Preliminary results show that CD4+ cells with high levels of PgP do not necessarily express high levels of SXR RNA. Therefore we concluded from these results that there are mechanisms other than SXR that increase levels of PgP in CD4+ lymphocytes of HIV-infected patients. 

  • Award Ribbon11:45   ROLE OF MEMBRANE SYNTHESIS IN MACROPHAGE FUNCTION 

  • Christopher Sage*1 and Suzanne Jackowski2. 1 Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN, and 2 Protein Science Division, Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.
      Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that is part of the first-line response to an infection. Bacteria and other foreign bodies are ingested and broken down into peptides that are presented as antigens by specialized molecules on the cell’s surface. With phagocytosis within the macrophage, there is a need for phospholipids within the cell membrane, due to the development of the phagosomes, vesicles that contain the foreign body in the macrophage. Two mammalian genes encode isoforms of CTP:phosphocholine cytidyltransferase (CCT), a key rate-controlling step in membrane phospholipid biogenesis. CCTalpha is the most ubiquitously-expressed and well-studied, while the CCTbeta form is present at significantly lower levels. We investigated the role(s) of the CCTalpha in macrophages by generating knockout mice. The CCTalpha gene knockout macrophages had a slower proliferation rate compared to the wild-type macrophages which doubled in 7 days. The CCTalpha gene knockout macrophages also were limited in the amount of bacteria that they were able to ingest. These data suggested that replication and phagocytosis were impaired, but not absent, from the CCTalpha-deficient cells. Therefore, the data shows a definite reduction in macrophage activity due to the decrease in phosphatidylcholine from the CCTalpha-deficient cells. 
      This research project was funded by grants GM45737, 5 R25 CA23944, and P30 CA-21765 from the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Cancer Institute, the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC).
  • 12:00   MITOCHONDRIAL GENERATION OF OXYGEN RADICALS BY PERIPHERIAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS (PMBC’s) IN A MODEL OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE. 

  • Vaishali Patel*1, and  Robert A. Ahokas2, 1 Department of Biology,  Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN and 2 University of TN Center for Health Sciences,  Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Memphis, TN.
    The usefulness of finding the source for the generation of reactive oxygen species will provide a greater understanding about the role of aldosterone in the neuroendocrine-immune interface in chronic heart failure.  This will lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure. ROS are both free radicals and reactive anions containing oxygen atoms, or molecules containing oxygen atoms that can either produce free radicals or are chemically activated by them. Examples are hydroxyl radical, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite. ROS are primarily responsible for myocardial cell apoptosis. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) treated with aldosterone, a mineralocortiocid hormone, generates increase levels of ROS, primarily H2O2 and invades the heart causing lesions similar to those seen in patients with chronic heart failure. Since previous research has shown that PBMC of mitochondria of aldosterone/salt treated rats generate increased level of ROS, we hypothesized that the intracellular source of the ROS are the PBMC of mitochondria.  To test this hypothesis we used mitochondria specific probe MitoTracker Red (CM-H2XROS) assay to assess mitochondrial ROS production by PBMC from aldosterone/salt treated rats compared to age/gender-matched untreated control rats. The PBMC fluorescence was then analyzed by single cell flow cytometry using a FACS cytometer. The results of the study show direct evidence for the increased generation of ROS by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mitochondria.
    Session Three ends at 12:15.
    Lunch served at 12:15 in Montesi, Buckman Hall
    |Return to Program Contents|                        Photo Gallery #1
       
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    Poster Session
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    Montesi
    Buckman Hall

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    Poster Viewing:
    8:30-9:00 am
    and 
    12:30-1:00 pm

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    Poster Session
    Montesi, Buckman Hall
    Poster Viewing: 8:30-9:00 and 12:30-1:00
    Authors should be present during those times if possible

    1.Award RibbonMONITORING REPRODUCTIVE STATUS IN THE FEMALE GIANT ANTEATER (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) BY FECAL HORMONE ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVED BREEDING MANAGEMENT. 
    Jennifer L. DeBeauchamp*1,3, Jennifer Hudgins2, Heather DeCaluwe2, Andy J. Kouba1, Peter Riger2, Carrie K. Vance1,31 Memphis Zoo, 2000 Prentiss Place, Memphis, TN, 2 Nashville Zoo @ Grassmere, 3777 Nolensville Rd., Nashville, TN , 3 Department of Biology, 201 Life Sciences Bldg, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN. 

    The stability of the captive population of giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), in US zoological institutions is questionable due to difficulties in the management of male-female pairs during reproductive cycles and pregnancy as well as the high mortality rate of neonates. In hopes of establishing improved breeding management for the giant anteater regular examination of female reproductive status was determined by non-invasive fecal hormone analysis and coupling hormone cycles to external behavioral indicators. A protocol for an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of the steroid hormone derivatives of progesterone (P4) and estradiol glucuronide (E1G) present in extracts of giant anteater feces.  Four traditional wet fecal extraction methods were tested. Optimal hormone levels from anteaters were obtained by solvating 0.5 g of fecal material in 5mL of 80% EtOH solution for 20 hours.  Data obtained from 12 months of samples from five individual giant anteaters suggest a cycle varying in length from 45-60 days in agreement with results obtained from RIA data. One pregnancy occurred during the duration of the project giving an approximate pregnancy term length of 180 days. 
    Supported by: Conservation Action Network (CAN) of the Memphis Zoo.
    2.ASSESSING BONE DENSITY WITH ULTRASONIC BACKSCATTER. 
    John A. Janeski* and Brent K. Hoffmeister, Department of Physics, Rhodes College.
    There is increasing interest in developing ultrasonic backscatter techniques for detecting changes in bone density caused by diseases like osteoporosis.  Objective:  To measure two ultrasonic backscatter parameters, apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and the frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB) using a broadband 7.5 MHz system. AIB represents the frequency averaged power in the backscattered signal and FSAB represents the slope of the frequency dependence of this power.  Methods:  Cubes of cancellous (i.e., spongy) bone with side lengths of 15 mm were prepared from the heads of 10 human femurs (7 donors).  Data were collected by mechanically scanning an ultrasonic transducer over each bone specimen and acquiring the backscattered signals.  These were post-processed to obtain a single value of AIB or FSAB for each specimen.  In addition, the mass density of each specimen was measured by allowing the specimen to air dry for 24 hours and then dividing the mass of the specimen by its volume.  Results:  AIB and FSAB both demonstrated highly significant linear correlations with density (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001).  Conclusion: AIB and FSAB are sensitive to changes in bone density, and may provide a useful new clinical technique for detecting and monitoring osteoporosis.
    Supported in part through a MRI/RUI research grant from the National Science Foundation
    3.SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CROSSLINKED POLY(MMA-CO-EGDMA). 
    Anne R. Tanner* and Richard D. Redfearn, Department of Chemistry, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN.
     Often the amount of crosslinking comonomer in commercial polymers is very small compared to other components of a polymer product. The amounts of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) can range from 30-40% by weight in contact lens acrylic polymer down to the tenths of a weight percent in plastics used in automotive or bathtub/hot tub plastics. However, only a few hundred ppm of EGDMA in a copolymer with MMA can render the polymer insoluble and intractable for the purposes of obtaining good spectroscopic data by 1H and 13C NMR, for example. Pyrolysis GC-MS has the advantage of providing a quantitative determination of EGDMA incorporated into the polymer, even at low levels down to 200 ppm (0.02 wt% or approximately 0.01 mol% based on total polymer) in poly(MMA-co-EGDMA) copolymers. Also, “gel state” NMR can also be effective in showing tacticity of the copolymer with significant levels of crosslinking. This poster will illustrate the reproducible synthesis of poly(MMA-co-EGDMA) polymers and their characterization by “gel state” NMR and pyrolysis GC-MS.
    4.Award RibbonNMR STUDY OF THE HOST-GUEST COMPLEXATION OF A COMMERCIAL CHLORDANE SAMPLE WITH BETA-CYLODEXTRIN AND BETA-CYCLODEXTRIN TRIACETATE. 
    Rachel M. Methvin* and Richard D. Redfearn, Department of Chemistry, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN.
     One long-term threat to urban environmental health and safety is the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in urban soil and water. Some of these compounds are associated with acute and chronic human toxicity. In Memphis, there has been recent awareness of the occurrence of polychlorinated pesticide residues in the soil along Cypress Creek in Midtown and North Memphis neighborhoods. These POPS are artifacts of the production of the pesticide chlordane by the chemical company Velsicol, although production was halted in the late 1980s. One possible route to remediation of Cypress Creek soil is the possible phytoremediation scheme of allowing the organochlorine POPS to be translocated up into the native plants growing on the banks. A previous study in our laboratories ruled out any significant phytoremediation from the growth of three common weed species, most likely due to very low water solubility of the POPs involved. A way that phytoremediation could be enhanced might be to increase the water solubility by encapsulating the soil-bound organochlorine POPs into cyclodextrin complexes. This preliminary study tests this hypothesis by attempting to create chlordane-cyclodextrin host-guest complexes, and gauging the efficacy of the complexation by 1H and 13C NMR.
    5.A MICROSTRUCTURAL STUDY OF ULTRAHIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE USING TEM AND PYROLYSIS GC-MS. 
    M. Andrew Scott1, Terese A. Holm*2, Karyn E. Spence1, Carl W. Carlson2, Ann M. Viano1, Richard D. Redfearn2, Asit K. Ray3. 1Department of Physics, 2Department of Chemistry, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN and 3Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Christian Brother’s University, Memphis, TN.
     Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a commonly used material in human joint prostheses.  The combination of its non-reactivity in the body and its mechanical properties make UHMWPE ideal for cartilage replacement in artificial knee and hip joints.  A drawback is the material’s production of submicron wear particles, which can cause adverse biological reactions.  Post processing of the material with gamma-irradiation and annealing has been shown to reduce the production of these wear particles.  While the effects of these treatments on the macroscopic properties of UHMWPE have been investigated, few researchers have studied their effects on the molecular level of structure.  We have used transmission electron microscopy to visualize the crystalline (lamellar) and amorphous regions of the polymer, and measured a “stacking parameter” that quantifies the degree of lamellar freedom in the polymer. This method was combined with a chemical analytical technique, pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which identifies the types and extent of crosslinking.  Together, these two methods have provided a determination of the microscopic structure of UHMWPE due to post-manufacturing treatments.  The results should provide insight into future material processing to reduce wear in this important artificial joint material.
    6. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A SERIES OF IRON CHLORIDE LAYERED PEROVSKITE
    David Tran*1, Doinita Neiner, Xiao Zhang, Chris McArdle, Elisha Josepha, and John B. Wiley.  1 Department of Chemistry,  Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN
    (FeCl)LaTa2O7 and (FeCl)Ca2Nb3O10 were synthesized for the first time by using ion exchange with the Dion-Jacobson double and triple layer perovskites. The Dion-Jacobson double and triple layer perovskites, RbLaTa2O7 and RbCa2Nb3O10 were formed by conventional solid-state method. Lithium analogues were prepared by an ion exchange method. The compounds were then exchanged with FeCl2 at different temperatures under vacuum. The compounds were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and elemental analysis was done by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). (FeCl)LaTa2O7 appears to be isostructural with (FeCl)LaNb2O7. The interlayer space increased in the new compounds from host compounds. Elemental analysis confirmed the presence of both iron and chlorine in the new compounds. 
      |Return to Program Contents|                        Photo Gallery #1
    Corrections to Abstracts? Abstracts as they appear in the printed program will be forwarded to TAS for publication.
    TAS
    @
    CBU
    2005

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    Index of
    Presenting
    Authors
     
     
     

    ~~~
     

    Click the 
    "hot link"
    (name)
    to jump
    to the
    abstract
     
     

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    Index of Presenting Authors
     
     
     

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    Alphabetical Index of Presenting Authors
    Whitney M. Appling, session 2
    Jennifer M. Bernard, session 1
    Amar Bhula, session 2
    Cynthia Caceres, session 3
    Matthew D. Cain, session 3
    Jennifer L. DeBeauchamp, poster
    Jessica A. Devitt, session 1
    Karla L. Gage, session 1
    Christen N. Gregory, session 3
    Erica Hayes, session 3
    Ross W. Hilliard, session 2
    Terese A. Holm, poster
    Monica Huerta, session 2
    John A. Janeski, poster
    Cheri Kimes, session 2
    Andrew Kovacs, session 3
    Melissa B. Lee, session 1
    Victoria K. Lo, session 2
    Jennifer Longo, session 1
    Sally Lynch, session 1
    Sara Lynch, session 1
    Carrie McIvor, session 3
    Rachel M. Methvin, poster
    Sinifunanya E. Nwaobi, session 2
    Manish Patel, session 2
    Vaishali Patel, session 3
    Bradley W. Petkovich, session 1
    Angela D. Phillips, session 3
    Christopher Sage, session 3
    Jessica Seratt, session 2
    Paul Sinclair, session 1
    Anne R. Tanner, poster
    David Tran, poster
    Kelley Ward, session 1
    Adriane D. Wilkinson, session 2
    Shannon M. Winfrey, session 3
    |Return to Program Contents|                        Photo Gallery #1
    Session
    Judges
    Award Ribbon
    Session Judges for the Best Paper Awards

    Session One  Animal Behavior, Memory, Integrals and Environmental Biology 
    (Buckman 111)

    • Eldridge Johnson, PhD, UTCHS, Dept. of Anatomy and Neurobiology
    • David Kesler, PhD, Rhodes College, Dept. of Biology
    Session TwoReproductive Biology and Molecular Expression
    (Buckman 102)
    • George Harwell, EdD, MT(ASCP)SC, CLS(NCA), Program Director, Graduate Program in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, UTCHS
    • Chris Meade, PhD, UTCHS, Dept. of Anatomy and Neurobiology
    Session Three Clinical Studies, Pharmacology, Hematology 
    (Buckman 112)
    • Dennis Carrigan, DDS, UTCHS, Dept. of Pathology
    • Patrick Ryan, PhD, UTCHS, Director of the Integrated Program in Biomedical Sciences
    • Bill Thierfelder, PhD, Crichton College, Dept. of Biology
  • Poster Session:   (Montesi)
  • Charles Biggers, PhD, Univ. of Memphis, Dept. of Biology
  • Delphia Harris, PhD, LeMoyne Owen College, Professor of Chemistry, Division of Natural and Mathematical Sciences 
  • |Return to Program Contents|                        Photo Gallery #1
    Award Ribbon

    Best
    Paper
    Awards

    Awards
    are
    presented
    for the
    best
    paper(s)
    in each
    of the
    three
    sessions.

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    Click the 
    "hot link"
    (name)
    to jump
    to the
    abstract

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    Award Ribbon

    Best Paper Awards

    Above (L to R): Rachel M. Methvin, Rhodes; Jennifer L. DeBeauchamp, U Memphis;  Sinifunanya E. Nwaobi, Rhodes; 
    Paul Sinclair, Rhodes; Cynthia Carceres, CBU; Monica Huerta, Rhodes; Christen Gregory, CBU; and 
    Christopher Sage, CBU.  [Not pictured:  Melissa Lee, U Memphis.]
  • Session One:   Animal Behavior, Memory, Integrals and Environmental Biology
    • 1st Place  Paul Sinclair* and Shubo Banerjee. Department of Physics, Rhodes College. 

    • USING THE MONTE CARLO TECHNIQUE TO SOLVE TOUGH INTEGRALS. 
    • 2nd Place  Melissa B. Lee*, Karla Gage, and Maciej Biernacki.  Department of Biology, University of Memphis.

    • PLANT RESOURCE ALLOCATION:  PROJECTED SURFACE AREA
  • Session Two:  Reproductive Biology and Molecular Expression 
    • 1st Place  Monica Huerta*1, Glen Ulett2, Elisabeth Adderson21 Department of Biology, Rhodes College and 2 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Memphis, TN. 

    • GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS (GBS) INDUCES CASPASE-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS OF RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS. 
    • 2nd Place  Sinifunanya E. Nwaobi*, Jay A. Blundon, Catherine P. Fenster.  Department of Biology, Rhodes College.

    • DETERMINING NIL-16 AND KV4.2 INTERACTION AND REDUCING NIL-16 VIA SIRNA. 
  • Session Three:  Clinical Studies, Pharmacology, Hematology
  • 1st Place  Christopher Sage*1 and Suzanne Jackowski2. 1 Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University and 2 Protein Science Division, Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

  • ROLE OF MEMBRANE SYNTHESIS IN MACROPHAGE FUNCTION 
  • Tie-2nd Place  Cynthia Caceres*1, Lorraine Sutton2, Michael L. Vetter2, Maria Pia De Pasquale2,3, Richard T. D’Aquila2,3. 1 Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University and, 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology and 3 Division of Infectious Diseases, Dept. of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center,  Nashville, TN. 

  • THE EFFECTS OF SXR RNA EXPRESSION IN CD4+ CELLS
  • Tie-2nd Place  Christen N. Gregory*1 and Kristine R. Crews2. 1 Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University and 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN. 

  • IRINOTECAN PHARMACOGENETIC STUDIES IN PEDIATRIC CANCER PATIENTS.
  • Poster Session:
  • 1st Place  Jennifer L. DeBeauchamp*1,3, Jennifer Hudgins2, Heather DeCaluwe2, Andy J. Kouba1, Peter Riger2, Carrie K. Vance1,31 Memphis Zoo, 2 Nashville Zoo, 3 Department of Biology, University of Memphis. 

  • MONITORING REPRODUCTIVE STATUS IN THE FEMALE GIANT ANTEATER (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) BY FECAL HORMONE ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVED BREEDING MANAGEMENT. 
  • 2nd Place  Rachel M. Methvin* and Richard D. Redfearn, Department of Chemistry, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN.

  • NMR STUDY OF THE HOST-GUEST COMPLEXATION OF A COMMERCIAL CHLORDANE SAMPLE WITH BETA-CYLODEXTRIN AND BETA-CYCLODEXTRIN TRIACETATE. 

    Above (L to R): Rachel M. Methvin, Rhodes; Jennifer L. DeBeauchamp, U Memphis;  Sinifunanya E. Nwaobi, Rhodes; 
    Paul Sinclair, Rhodes; Cynthia Carceres, CBU; Monica Huerta, Rhodes; Christen Gregory, CBU; and 
    Christopher Sage, CBU.   [Not pictured:  Melissa Lee, U Memphis.]
    Summary
    ~~~
    Schedule
    of
    Events

    ~~~

    TAS
    @
    CBU
    2005

    Tennessee Academy of Science
    19 March 2005
    Christian Brothers University
    • Registration in the Lobby, Buckman Hall
      • Coffee and Muffins 
      • 8:00-8:40 Buckman Hall Lobby
    • Welcoming Remarks 
      • Dr. Anthony Aretz, Academic V.P., Christian Brothers University
      • 8:45 Montesi, Buckman Hall
    • Introduction of Keynote Speaker by Dr. Malinda Fitzgerald  Montesi
    • Keynote Address Montesi, Buckman
      • Ed Chaum, M.D. Ph.D., UT Department of Ophthalmology.  "Lost in Translational Research"
    • Paper Sessions
      • Session One: Animal Behavior, Memory, Integrals and Environmental Biology
        • 9:45 to 12:00 Room 111, Buckman
        • Moderator: Bro. Edward Salgado, Chair, CBU Biology 
      • Session Two: Reproductive Biology and Molecular Expression
        •  9:45 to 12:15 Room 102, Buckman
        •  Moderator: Dr. Malinda Fitzgerald, CBU Biology
      • Session Three:   Clinical Studies, Pharmacology, Hematology 
        •  9:45-12:15 Room 112, Buckman
        •  Moderator: Dr. Sandra Thompson-Jaeger, CBU Biology
    • Poster Session  Montesi Room, Buckman Hall
      • 8:30-9:00 am and 12:30-1:00 pm
    • LUNCH  12:15-1:00 Montesi Room, Buckman Hall (for registered attendees)
    • Break from 1:00-1:30 for Judges Meeting
    • Award Ceremony in Montesi Room, Buckman beginning at 1:30
      • General Business Meeting for TN Academy
    Return to Program Contents                        Photo Gallery #1            Photo Gallery #2
    TAS @ CBU 2005
    Biology Department
    Christian Brothers University
     
    This page created and maintained by Dr. Anna E. Ross, CBU Biology.
    E-mail: aross@cbu.edu

    [This page updated 4 April 2005~ AER]