for Oral and Poster Papers -- TAS 10 April 2010
One: Engineering AH
Moderator: Dr. John Ventura
10:00 WIRELESS CHARGING STATION FOR
LOW-POWERED ELECTRONIC DEVICES. Binh Nguyen*
Russel Saliendra*, Christian Brothers
University, Memphis, Tennessee. . The purpose of this project is
the design and implementation of a Wireless Charging Station (WCS) for
low-powered electronic devices. The project focuses on the charging of
mobile phones, hand held media players, remote controls and sensors, and
other commercial and industrial low-powered portable electronic devices.
The WCS can aid the world’s energy crisis by preserving energy and being
environmentally friendly. This project has the potential to decrease daily
energy requirements while delaying the depletion of global energy sources.
The WCS successfully charged two mobile phones simultaneously, a Sony Ericsson
T610i and a Samsung E700, using one charging station. This result demonstrated
that multiple devices can be charged using wireless technology using one
charging device and at the same time, it provides convenience to consumers.
10:15 RAIN CATCH/IRRIGATION SYSTEM.
J. Nicolini*, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee.
The main purpose of the system is to provide water to the community garden
at Christian Brothers University. The system is controlled by a PLC,
valves, and pump. A PLC is a programmable logic controller that is
essentially a rugged and simple computer. The system can run independently
and has a built in timer to water the garden multiple times each week.
There is a rain/freeze sensor to prevent overwatering of the garden and
to protect the system and plants from freezing water. There is a
barrel to collect rainwater from a nearby roof and a pump to send the water
to the garden. Rainwater has more nitrogen and fewer chemicals than
tap water, which results in better plant growth. The system is effective
in watering the garden and it will allow students and faculty gardeners
to focus on class work and not have to check on the garden everyday.
10:30 BLIND SPOT AND REAR END DETECTION
SYSTEM FOR VEHICLES. Patrick Louie*,
Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee. The purpose of this
project is the design and implementation of a blind spot detection system
for motor vehicles. It is the design and implementation of a detection
system that is dependent on the blinker system of a vehicle and a rear
end detection system that is independent of a vehicles’ braking system.
The blind spot detection system assists drivers when changing lanes and
the rear end detection system allows drivers to be aware of obstructions
and drivers behind their vehicles. In addition, the rear end detection
system also controls a display to warn tailing drivers when they are too
close to the car in front of them. The project resulted in the construction
of a blind spot and rear end detection system that is accurate, precise,
and cost effective. This practical system provides drivers a system
that will enable them to detect otherwise undetectable vehicles or obstructions
and reduce the number of accidents.
10:45 GPS TRACKING DEVICE FOR AIR CONDITIONER
COILS. Fredrick D. Durham*, Christian
Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee. The purpose of this project was
to design and implement a device that will allow a person to track the
coils of an air conditioner in the event of theft. The device must
be small, reliable, and easy to operate and maintain. A Telit GM862
GPS Module was implemented that uses GPS technology to track air conditioner
coils. A GSM Network was employed to obtain tracking information
on the longitude and latitude of coils from the Telit GM862 GPS Module.
The coordinates of the coils can then be uploaded to Google Maps to provide
the location of coils.
11:00 MULTI CHANNEL BATTERY CHARGER.
F. de Lima*, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee.
An Emergency Light is a device that turns on during any power failure.
It consists of a battery that provides power to the lamp during a power
outage and charges during regular AC power. Today, according to building
code emergency lighting units are required in all buildings in the form
exit signs or stairwell lighting. Philips Emergency Lighting located in
Collierville, TN is a leading innovator and provider of emergency lights.
Since batteries are an integral part of an emergency light, they need to
be charged before being shipped off to the customer to at least half of
its capacity. This project deals with the design and implementation of
a safe, cost effective and efficient Nickel Cadmium Battery Charger. The
charger was built successfully with the design topology selected and charged
different types of batteries based on the charging specifications.
11:15 USE OF GREEN ENERGY IN AUTONOMOUS
Harshit R. Shroff*, Anthony
Bownes* and James Brown*,
Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee. The purpose of
this project is to design and develop an autonomous a solar-powered robot
to compete in the IEEE SoutheastCon 2010 Hardware Competition. The
robot navigates obstacles such as two gates of different sizes, a ramp,
and must travel on a ten-foot-by-ten-foot track. The only source
of power is four high-intensity lamps locate on the track at regular intervals.
Points are allotted for obstacles and laps completed in each run. The robot
utilizes a design that includes high-quality photovoltaic cells, a two
motor system, infrared proximity and photo-resistive sensors, a capacitor
bank, and a microcontroller to manage all systems. The robot is capable
of tracing an inner wall to pass through the two gates and complete a lap.
WINDOWS REGISTRY EDITOR AND AUTORUNS DISABLER. Mike
Yarbrough, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee.
The purpose of this project is to create a new method for disabling the
programs that run automatically when a Microsoft Windows computer boots
up. While there are a number of programs already that will disable
autoruns while the computer is running, this one can turn off unwanted
entries before the computer is booted. This allows the client to disable
unwanted programs without the chance of them re-enabling themselves. The
project is fundamentally an offline registry editor because the platform
needs to be able to edit the Windows Registry without using the advanced
programming interface (API) that comes with the operating system. The program
is successful in automatically backing up and modifying the registry hives,
and recognizing and disabling a number of autorun entries.
BROTHERS UNIVERSITY’S IPHONE APPLICATION. Grey
Dziuba, Christian Brothers University,
Memphis, Tennessee. The purpose of this project is to design an application
that allows the user the ability to obtain pertinent information from a
mobile device, the iPhone. The application includes four main features:
(1) a map that pinpoints the exact location of the user while on the Christian
Brothers University campus; (2) a list of office locations of all Christian
Brothers University professors with the ability to call or email each professor
from the mobile device; (3) a link to the Christian Brothers University
Connection, a bulletin of student activities; (4) a link to the Christian
Brothers University’s Lifeline, a weekly publication of the Christian Brothers
University’s career center. These features are included in one simple
application that improves the efficiency of communication in the Christian
Brothers University’s community while using engineering techniques and
Two: Animal Behavior AH
HOME SECURITY USING RFID TECHNOLOGY. Jacky
Wong and Keith Wyrick*,
Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee. The purpose of
the project is to design and implement a RFID security lock. The
objective is to open electronically a deadbolt with the use of an RFID
reader in conjunction with an RFID tag. The results are a working
prototype that uses a microprocessor to validate RFID tags. The prototype
has been equipped with a unique function of adding and removing additional
valid RFID tags for practical use. In conclusion, RFID home security
is a very costly and effective security tool that if implemented into the
home could provide the user with extra safety and allow for a hassle free
Moderator: Dr. Anna Ross
10:00 IDENTIFYING AND EVALUATING SOCIAL,
DOMINANT, AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIORS AMONG THREE BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS IN KEY
LARGO, FLORIDA. Kristi A. Prevost,
and Holli Byerly, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee and
Dolphin Cove, Key Largo, Florida. Contributing factors such as health,
reproductive state, genetics, climate, housing enclosures, and social dynamics
appear to affect dolphin behavior and social alliances. Three male
bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates), one juvenile and two adults,
were observed multiple times daily. Data were collected post training sessions
using a behavioral ethogram to monitor and categorize behavioral observations,
including social and aggressive behaviors. The results demonstrated that
the highest number of aggressive behaviors were from the believed to be
sub-dominate male, Kimbit, perpetrated towards Leo, the youngest and least
dominate male of the pod. Social variations of pairings during training
sessions altered the amount of aggressive behaviors after the training
sessions, as well as revealed different social alliances between the two
adult males. With this knowledge, the animal care staff of Dolphin Cove
may be able to curb aggressive acts between non-pair bonded and submissive
animals with different social pairings during training sessions.
10:15 STOP AND SMELL THE ROSES: HOW
OLFACTORY ENRICHMENT AFFECTS THE BEHAVIOR OF CAPTIVE JAGUARS (PANTHERA
ONCA) AT THE MEMPHIS ZOO. Stephanie N. Cassel*,
W. Graham*, Andrew Kouba, Morgan Powers, and Sarah A. Boyle, Rhodes
College, Memphis, Tennessee(SC, AG, SB) and the Memphis Zoo, Memphis, Tennessee(AK,MP).Jaguars
(Panthera onca) require enrichment to promote active behavior in order
to maintain fitness while in captivity. The purpose of our study was to
evaluate changes in behavioral and spatial activity with the introduction
of novel scents for two captive female jaguars displayed at the Memphis
Zoo in the fall of 2009, as well as to evaluate the effect of enrichment
upon a single female jaguar in the spring of 2010. The jaguars spent more
time sleeping and resting during control periods, using only a few areas
within their exhibit. During enrichment periods, sleeping and resting behavior
frequency decreased. The jaguars used more areas of their enclosure when
enrichment items were present. Scents such as perfumes and deodorants received
the greatest frequency and duration of enrichment behavior. Behavior of
a single jaguar was affected similarly by olfactory enrichment. In conclusion,
olfactory enrichment promotes positive active behavior in captive jaguars.
10:30 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO
TWO NON-INVASIVE RESEARCH METHODS FOR THE STUDY OF WILD JAGUAR POPULATIONS
Mitchell*, Rachel Dutkosky*, Leandro
Silveira, and Rahel Solomann Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee
(CM), University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee (RD),and Instituto
Onça-Pintada-Jaguar Conservation Fund, Mineiros, Brasil (LS, RS).
Scat detection and camera trapping are two valuable non-invasive research
methods used in studying wild jaguar populations. Scat detection is useful
for gaining genetic, distribution, hormonal, and dietary data on the species.
Additionally, camera trapping can be used to obtain information on the
distribution and abundance of a population in a set area. Both methods
have marked advantages and disadvantages that must be taken into consideration;
however, both are valuable research methods that should continue to be
utilized in future research. Supported by Minority Health and Health
Disparities International Research Training Program NIH-2T37MD001378-08.
10:45 ROLE OF THE ALPHA-1-ADRENERGIC
RECEPTORS ON THE RECONSOLIDATION OF OLFACTORY FEAR CONDITIONING. Ting
Wong*, Fabricio HM Do-Monte, Antonio P. Carobrez, Christian
Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (TW), and Universidade Federal
de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil (FD-M, AC). After
a short retrieval session (reactivation session), previous stabilized memories
can become labile and subjective to pharmacological interference in a phenomenon
called reconsolidation. Since the noradrenergic system has been widely
involved in the long-lasting feature of the aversive memory formation,
this study investigated the involvement of the alpha-1-adrenergic receptors
during the reconsolidation phase. The olfactory fear-conditioning (OFC)
paradigm was used since olfaction is a dominant sense in rats. Male Long-Evans
hooded rats (12-16 weeks; n=27) were systemically administered with saline
or the alpha-1-blocker prazosin (0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg) immediately after the
reactivation session. Results showed that both prazosin treated-groups
demonstrated a significative (p < 0.05) reduction in the defensive behavior
when tested one week later in a different behavioral chamber (ANOVA followed
by Newman Keuls). This finding reinforces the described lability of fear
memories after retrieval, suggesting an involvement of the alpha-1-adrenergic
receptors during the reconsolidation of OFC. Supported by Minority
Health and Health Disparities International Research Training Program NIH-2T37MD001378-08.
Three: Molecular and Cell Biology AH
11:00 EFFECTS OF DOPAMINE INHIBITION
ON FLUID LICKING BEHAVIOR OF UBE3A DEFICIENT MICE. Cameron
Kasmai*, and Detlef Heck, Christian Brothers University, Memphis
Tennessee and University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.
Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a genetically-linked neurological disorder caused
by a mutation or maternal deficiency of the Ube3a gene. Yet unpublished
findings indicate elevated dopamine levels in Ube3a deficient mice. This
experiment was to test if treatment with a dopamine antagonist would rescue
a fluid licking phenotype previously found in Ube3a deficient mice. Mouse
licking behavior was observed in the home cage with the use of a special
lickometer. Randomly chosen mice were treated with the dopamine antagonist
Risperdal. The results of this experiment were highly variable, possibly
due to the method of drug delivery. Drug application was through intra-peritoneal
injection. Other routes, such as subcutaneous nano-pumps, might be more
effective. At this point, without additional experiments, no definitive
conclusions can be made from these data about the action of Risperdal on
fluid licking behavior in a mouse model of AS.
Supported by: UTHSC Neuroscience
Institute Merit Fellowship.
11:15 ATLANTOOCCIPITAL DISSOCIATION:
A UNIFORMLY FATAL INJURY? Wallace C. Lock*,
Louis J. Magnotti, and Martin A. Croce, Christian Brothers University,
Memphis Tennessee (WL), and University of Tennessee Health Science Center,
Memphis, Tennessee(LM, MC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate
the effect of rapid diagnosis and treatment (stabilization) of traumatic
AOD. The objective of this study was to affirm or dispel the hypothesis
that AOD is uniformly fatal in adults. This study resulted in the discovery
of 21 AOD patients, .05% of all trauma admissions over the study period.
The study population included 15 men and 6 women who were evaluated for
markers of injury including admission GCS, ISS, and head AIS and Mean BE.
Overall mortality was 29% with deaths caused by severe traumatic brain
injury, sepsis, and multiple organ failure. The remaining 71% patients
were surgically stabilized. All patients undergoing stabilization survived.
In conclusion, traumatic AOD remains a relatively rare injury. Prompt diagnosis
is crucial in promoting rapid stabilization and contributing to increasing
survivability. Traumatic AOD should no longer be considered a uniformly
fatal injury in adults.
Moderator: Dr. Mary Ogilvie
10:00 IN VITRO MACROPHAGE RESPONSE TO
Brooke Allen and
Richard Smith, Christian Brothers University, Memphis Tennessee and University
of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee. In total
joint arthroplasty, the prosthesis becomes loosened due to endotoxins that
reside on the wear particles from the titanium implant and the polyurethane
cap. This results in the loss of the implant and osteolysis around the
acetabular cup, which prevents a positive outcome after performing a second
hip replacement. Due to the concern involving the cleanliness of the particles
and the amount of particles, it was of interest to clean and dirty the
particles at various degrees. Then, it was of importance to measure the
amount of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) that was released in correlation
to the cleanliness of the particles and ratio of particles. After observing
the results, it was found that endotoxin levels created high concentration
levels of TNF- ? and were notably greater in the dirty, LPS (lipopolysaccharide)
bound particles than in relation to the clean and partially cleaned particles.
Overall, it can be concluded that the dirty particles and the larger amounts
of particles caused the release of the cytokine TNF- ?,which causes osteolysis.
10:15 INFLUENCE OF ACE-1, ACE-2 AND
ACE-3 GENES ON SOIL NEMATODES. William A.
Simco* and Lynda R. Miller, Memphis University School, Memphis,
Tennessee (WS), and Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (LM).
The ACE-1, ACE-2 and ACE-3 genes code for acetylcholinesterase which affects
the neuromuscular junction of C. elegans. The role of these three
genes on development and activity in the worms was investigated.
RNA interference (RNAi) was used to inhibit gene expression in F1 individuals
to determine the phenotypic effect on the animal. Gene function was
examined individually by inhibiting single genes as well as inhibiting
multiple ACE gene combinations simultaneously. Single gene inhibition
resulted in a phenotype undifferentiated from the wild-type. Multiple
gene inhibition affected hatching success and muscular function.
Supported by: DOD grant to Academy of
Applied Science “REAP”
10:30 DERMACENTOR VARIABILIS:
THE EFFECTS OF TICK SALIVA ON JNK AND P38 SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN FIBROBLASTS.
S. Pirtle*, Carolyn D. Kramer, Nina Poole-Mitchell, Lewis
B. Coons, and Judith Cole, Christian Brothers University, Memphis,
Tennessee (RP) and University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee(CK, NP-M,
LC, JC). ). We examined the effects of saliva from partially
fed Dermacentor variabilis females on MAPK signaling pathways and eighty-four
different genes associated with these pathways in murine NIH-3T3 fibroblasts.
The Jun N-terminus kinase (JNK) and p38 pathways were studied.
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) showed that activity of the
epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated JNK signaling pathway in the fibroblasts
was not significantly decreased. However, the saliva did slightly
increase the fibroblasts’ EGF-stimulated p38 activity. Polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) arrays showed that the tick saliva suppresses several
sets of genes associated with many important cell processes in fibroblasts.
These data support the hypothesis that saliva from Dermacentor variabilis
affects the host’s wound healing abilities.
10:45 COMPARING THE AMPLIFICATION OF
WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS GENES WITH DIFFERENT PRIMERS. Caitlin
Ashley*, Juliana R Moser and Maria Risoleta Freire Marques,
Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (CA). Universidade Federal
de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brasil (JM, MM). ). This study
aimed to test different primers and optimize the Polymerase Chain Reaction
(PCR) for detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a highly lethal
disease in shrimp. Kits, labeled probes, PCR and nested PCR are used for
detection of WSSV. DNA extraction from frozen shrimp pleopods showed degradation
so previously extracted DNA samples from the laboratory (Fixed pleopods)
were used. For optimization of PCR, the concentration of MgCl2, Taq polymerase,
and primers were altered to produce the best results (presence of the 500
or 800 bp band in WSSV positive samples without nonspecific bands). UV
light exposure was used to visualize and photograph the results run on
an agarose gel. PCR 500-4, with decreased concentrations of primers and
Taq polymerase, produced the least amount of nonspecific bands for primer
500. The increased concentrations of MgCl2 and Taq polymerase in PCR 800-3
produced the least amount of nonspecific bands for primer 800.
Supported by Minority Health and Health
Disparities International Research Training Program NIH-2T37MD001378-08.
11:00 DOSE DEPENDENT REGULATION OF TRANSGENE
EXPRESSION IN VIVO. Jessica Hines*,
Siddharth Desai, Kishore Kodali, and Tonia Rex, Christian Brothers University,
Memphis, Tennessee (JH) and The University of Tennessee Health Science
Center, Memphis, Tennessee (SD, KK, TR). We hypothesized that gene
expression levels can be controlled by the tetracycline (tet) inducible
promoter in vivo. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used as
a quantifiable marker of gene expression. We packaged tet.eGFP into a recombinant
adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV.tet.eGFP). The vector was delivered
subretinally to mice that express the reverse tet transcriptional transactivators
from the vitelliform macular dystrophy2 promoter to induce expression specifically
in the retinal pigment epithelium. Mice were intraperitoneally injected
with increasing doses of dox (0.1mg/ml, 1mg/ml, and 10mg/ml) and fluorescence
was quantified in vivo to generate a dose curve. Peak fluorescence was
detected 6.5 hours after dox injection. The fluorescence levels increased
with increasing concentrations of dox. The dose curve showed that transgene
expression was directly dependent on dox dosage. This is the first study
to demonstrate that the tet-inducible promoter can be used to control transgene
expression levels in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. Supported by:
the Hamilton Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology Merit Fellowship
11:15 CYSTIC FIBROSIS: DEFINING A NOVEL
AND RARE REGULATION MUTANT S549N-CFTR. Fatima
Anmol Khan*, Anthony Rudine, Aixia Ren, Sunitha Yarlagadda,
Dennis C. Stokes, and Anjaparavanda P. Naren, Christian Brothers University,
Memphis, Tennessee (FK) and University of Tennessee, Cystic Fibrosis Care
and Research Center at Le Bonheur Children’s Medical Center, Memphis, Tennessee
(AR, AR, SY, DS, AN). A Hispanic infant diagnosed with cystic fibrosis
required multiple hospitalizations. Genotyping revealed ?F508 and S549N
mutations and when paired, they cause classic CF with elevated sweat chloride
measurements, pancreatic insufficiency, obstructive pulmonary disease,
and mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Point mutation was generated using eukaryotic
expression vector and was expressed in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK-293).
At the plasma membrane, S549N-CFTR appeared as a mature protein but lacked
function. Does S549N-CFTR behaved similar to the regulation mutant G551D-CFTR?
Previous studies illustrated that G551D-CFTR has little or no function
but can be augmented with the addition of potentiator (P1). Similarly,
VX770 is a G551D potentiator and is used in treating CF-patients with G551D-CFTR
mutation. Results have shown increased CFTR functions, thus showing significant
improvement in lung function and sweat chloride values. S549N-CFTR has
little or no function but can be augmented to WT-CFTR functional levels
in the presence of the CF-potentiator P1.
11:30 POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE-1 PROTEIN
EXPRESSION IN MURINE CHOCHLEA USING EGFP REPORTER . Terence
Netzel*, Katherine Steigleman , and Jian Zuo Christian
Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (TN), and Saint Jude Children’s
Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (KS, JZ). The Polycystic Kidney
Disease-1 (Pkd1) protein plays an integral role inthe structure of hair
cells' stereocilia in the cochlea (KA Steigelman, unpublished). To better
understand how the lack of Pkd1 is producing thisphenotype, we sought to
examine the cell type specificity of Pkd1 in the murine cochlea. Using
a Pkd1-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) transgenic animal, we
were able to determine specific cells types in the organ of Corti that
express Pkd1. At adult ages, these mice exhibited normal auditory brainstem
response (ABR) thresholds indicating the tag is not inhibiting normal Pkd1
cochlear function. Pkd1 was visualized by immunohistochemistry for the
EGFP tag and was determined to be present in hair cells of the cochlea
at adult ages. Additionally, we plan to examine both embryonic and different
postnatal ages with respect to the EGFP staining pattern as well as in
conjunction with cell specific cochlear markers.
11:45 DETERMINATION OF GENETIC LOCI
IN BXD MOUSE MODEL GLAUCOMA
Allen Vantrease, and Monica Jablonski, Christian Brothers University, Memphis,
Tennessee (ML) and University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis,
Tennessee(AV, MJ). Although the anatomical relationship between iris
atrophy/pigment dispersion and pigmentary glaucoma is well known, the genetic
predecessors of this glaucoma have yet to be fully explored. It is thought
that separate genes play a role in controlling the glaucomatous phenotype.
Using DBA/2J mice, which develop age-related glaucoma due to mutations
in Tryp1 and Gpnmb genes, and breeding them extensively with healthy C57BL/6J
mice, we were able to generate multiple BXD strains that express the diseases
along a wide spectrum. The mice were subjected to tests to measure intraocular
pressure, corneal clouding, iris degeneration, as well as histological
analysis of the optic nerves to determine damage to the microanatomy. Some
results that have already been examined indicate that genes unrelated to
Tryp1 and Gpnmb serve to increase or decrease receptiveness to glaucoma.
For example, BXD strains that have the most severe form of pigment dispersion
syndrome do not exhibit optic nerve atrophy. Also there are strains that
have normal Tryp1 and Gpnmb genes, but an elevated IOP or vice-versa.
Supported by: The Crane Vision Fellowship
Moderator: Dr. Sandra Thompson-Jaegar
10:00 ORBIFOLD EULER CHARACTERISTICS.
A. Carroll*, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee. .
Imagine that you have a pineapple that weighs around 2 pounds, a watermelon
that weighs around 30 pounds, and a scale with a capacity of 10 pounds.
The scale finds the exact weight of the pineapple with no problem, but
the greater weight of the watermelon complicates finding its true weight.
One option is to break the watermelon apart into pieces that can be weighed
on the scale and then added together. A similar predicament occurs while
trying to find a number called the Euler characteristic for geometric objects
known as orbifolds such as a sphere or doughnut with cusps and edges on
their surface. In order to find useful information about these spaces we
must break them into pieces and then sum their “weights”. In this presentation,
I will discuss a concept known as the Gamma-Euler-Satake characteristic,
which uses this method and its application.
10:15 A NOVEL, NIRS BASED APPROACH TO
CHYTRID (BATRACHOCHYTRIUM DENDROBATIDIS) DETECTION IN THE TOAD ANAXYRUS
FOWLERI. Daniel Eastlack*, Jon
Davis, Andrew Kouba and Carrie Vance, Memphis Zoological Society, Memphis
Tennessee (DE, JD, AK, CV), Rhodes College, Memphis Tennessee (DE, JD),
and Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi (CV). Amphibian
populations are declining globally due to, in part, the rapid spread of
the pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). The
goals of our study were to determine if Bd is present in Fowler’s toad
(Anaxyrus fowleri) populations around Memphis, TN and to use the toads
as a model species to develop a novel, and rapid method of Bd screening
based on Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) both in-situ and
ex-situ. We used Taqman quantitative PCR to confirm Bd infection at 7 of
11 study locations in 11 of 159 sampled individuals; however, populations
are thriving at these sites without evidence of widespread mortality, perhaps
indicating Bd resistance in A. fowleri. Our library size of A. fowleri
Bd-positive NIRS spectra is very small (n=2), yet these spectra are visibly
discernable from Bd-negative spectra and may provide a NIRS-based diagnostic
method for determination of Bd-status in A. fowleri.
10:30 EVALUATION OF NOVEL COMPOUNDS
AS ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS AGAINST SOLID TUMORS Sania
Sayani*, Ammaar Abidi, and Andrea Elberger. Christian Brothers
University, Memphis, Tennessee (SS) and University of Tennessee Health
Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee (AA, AE). This study was performed
to evaluate the effectiveness of eighteen novel drugs to inhibit the growth
of, and/or kill, human tumor cells. Experiments were conducted on
the following three established cell lines: U-87 (human glioblastoma multiforme),
HCT-15 (human colon carcinoma), and DU-145 (human prostate cancer).
All cells were treated with eleven serial dilutions of each drug investigated
to obtain accurate EC50 values (concentration at which 50% of the effects
are observed). Results show that the most effective drugs on HCT-15
cells were SNG-II-198 and ?8-THC; on U-87 cells were SNG-II-196 and SNG-II-224;
and. on DU-145 cells were SMM-I-97 and SNG-II-198. Some drugs were
excluded from analysis due to insolubility under assay conditions. These
experiments provided preliminary results to demonstrate new drugs that
could potentially be used against these types of tumors.
10:45 CONTRIBUTION OF CYTOCHROME P450
(CYP) 3A4//3A5 GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS TO THE INTER-PATIENT VARIABILITY IN
VANDETANIB PHARMOCOKINETICS IN PEDIATRIC DIFFUSE BRAINSTEM GLIOMAS. Rachel
Escue, Clinton Stewart, Mike Tagen, Laura Miller, and Stacy
Throm. Christian Brother’s University, Memphis, Tennessee (RE), and St
Jude’s Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (CS, MT, LM, ST).
Diffuse brain stem gliomas account for a serious percentage of death in
pediatric cancer patients. A new chemotherapy drug (vandetanib) is being
tested that targets both VEGFR and EGFR expression and function, both of
which are overactive in cancer. In this study, the role of single-nucleotide
polymorphisms (snp) in affecting the metabolism of vandetanib was tested.
11:00 EFFECT OF HIGH-CHOLESTEROL DIET
ON CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN ARTERIAL SMOOTH MUSCLE. Supriya
Ponnapula*, Maria Asuncion-Chin, Anna N. Bukiya, and Alejandro
M. Dopico, Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee (SP) and University
of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee (MA-C, AB, AD).
High-cholesterol diet prevails in Western societies and may play a pathophysiological
role in human diseases, including arteriosclerosis, coronary artery disease,
stroke and systemic hypertension. High cholesterol-driven vascular
pathology is usually linked to cholesterol (CHS) accumulation in endothelial
cells. Whether high-cholesterol intake leads to abnormal cholesterol
levels in the arterial smooth muscle itself, however, has not been systematically
explored. In this work, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a hypercholesterolemic
(2% CHS) or an isocaloric (control) diet for a total of 24 weeks.
Starting at week 8 of dietary treatment, samples of de-endothelized aorta,
cerebral, mesenteric and pulmonary arteries were obtained every 2 weeks
for CHS determination. Remarkably, resistance-size cerebral and mesenteric
arteries showed CHS accumulation ?10 weeks earlier than their elastic counterparts
(aorta and pulmonary arteries). CHS early accumulation in resistance-size
arteries may lead to significant impairment of vessel function and contribute
to the pathophysiology of prevalent human diseases.
and Animal Behavior AH Foyer
11:15 DERMACENTOR VARIABILIS: THE ALTERATION
OF THE WOUND HEALING MECHANISM. Xiong B. Lin*,
Caroline Kramer, and Lewis Coons, Christian Brothers University, Memphis,
Tennessee (XL) and The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee (CK, LC).
The Dermacentor variabilis or American dog tick saliva contains variety
of pharmaceutical significant molecules such as immunosuppressors and anticoagulants
that makes it interesting for researches. We hypothesized the Dermacentor
variabilis saliva has the ability to down regulate the transcriptions of
genes into functional proteins that involves cell proliferation, cell migration,
and cell communication that are part of the healing mechanism such as MMP
and TIMP. From cell cultivation of NIH/3T3 fibroblast and obtains of tick
saliva, to data collection with RT² qPCR arrays takes 3-4 weeks. The
results from the experiment approve the hypothesis of down regulation of
genes involve in healing mechanism with a range of decreases in matrix
metalloproteinase, collagen, integrin, ADAM protein, laminin, and TIMP
gene family transcription from the least of 4.00 folds to the most of 388.02
folds, show the effectiveness of tick saliva on inhibition of cell proliferation,
cell migration, and cell communication.
Moderator: Bro. Edward Salgado
ASSEMBLY OF COPPER AND PALLADIUM SUPRAMOLECULES
USING TWO DIFFERENT BIFUNCTIONAL LIGANDS Elizabeth
Calabretta* Andrew W. Maverick and Chandi Pariya, Christian
Brothers University, Memphis Tennessee (EC), and Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, Louisiana (AM,CP). The purpose of this research was
to assemble new supramolecules by attaching pyridine and terpyridine ligand
groups to copper and palladium. By attaching more complicated pyridine
and terpyridine groups to the metal, information can be learned to create
a cyclic metal complex with two bifunctional ligands. Previous work
in the group has been done to create “molecular square” supramolecules
using ?-diketones. My method was different from this work, because
I attached two different ligands to the metal in order to make the supramolecule.
It is believed that the target supramolecule was created based on elemental
analysis; however, no crystals were produced and the structure of the molecule
is still unknown.
BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATIONS OF WILD ORPHANED GRIZZLY
BEARS IN A NEW CAPTIVE ENVIRONMENT. Lauren
E. Lieb*, Kelly Patton*, Andy Kouba,
Sarah A. Boyle, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee (LL, KP, SB), and The
Memphis Zoo, Memphis, Tennessee (AK). We aimed to provide a better understanding
of how wild grizzly bear cubs (Ursus arctos) adjust to a captive environment.
Three bear cubs were orphaned in the wild in July 2009, and subsequently
were brought into captivity. The cubs first entered their outdoor exhibit
at the Memphis Zoo on September 28, 2009. We documented their initial
response to the exhibit, and collected behavioral data for six months.
The bears exhibited a range of behaviors, but the greatest proportion of
time was spent resting, swimming, and digging. They used all areas of the
exhibit, including a sand pit, den, stream, and pool. The cubs also interacted
with the public through a glass viewing area, and used enrichment items.
No agonistic behaviors were noted. We conclude that the bears exhibited
a range of behaviors and used multiple areas of their exhibit, but we suggest
that behavioral monitoring continues as the cubs mature.
DEVELOPMENT OF NON-INVASIVE REPRODUCTIVE MONITORING
TECHNIQUES FOR ENDANGERED SNOW LEOPARDS AND AMUR LEOPARDS. Allison
W. Graham*, Andy J. Kouba, and Erin L. Willis, Rhodes College
Memphis, Tennessee (AG) and the Memphis Zoo, Memphis, Tennessee (AK, EW).
An understanding of the reproductive biology of critically endangered Snow
and Amur leopards can aid in conservation efforts. We compared combinations
of different fecal steroid hormone extraction procedures to determine which
method extracted the greatest amount of steroid hormones and to examine
whether antibodies for measuring fecal steroids in other felids were also
suitable for leopards. The Methanol/Vortex 20 min extraction yielded a
greater amount of estrogens compared to other extraction methods.
For fecal androgens, a 6.8-fold increase in hormone concentration was found
when samples were extracted with methanol compared to extraction with ethanol.
Results indicated that a broad scale testosterone antibody and an estrogen
metabolite (E1G) antibody can be used to measure fecal androgens and estrogens
in snow leopards, and may be applicable to Amur leopards. Results
from these studies will improve procedures to characterize the seasonal
reproductive profiles of pubertal and adult female and male leopards.
IRON GLYCINE HYDROXO COMPLEXES IN AQUEOUS
SOLUTIONS. Jeremey Branch* and Yahia
Z. Hamada, LeMoyne-Owen College, Memphis, Tennessee. Recently, we
have studied a variety of low-molecular-mass ligands with many metal ions
using various spectrophotometric and emf measurements [1-3]. Herein, we
discovered the presence of two new Hydroxo-complexes for the iron(III)-Glycine
system. The new iron-Glycine complexes are: [Fe(Gly)(OH)2] and [Fe(Gly)(OH)3].
Djurdjevic presented the presence of Fe(Gly), Fe(Gly)(H), and the dimer
Fe2(Gly)2(OH)2 and their stability constants in a medium with µ =
0.5 M [4-a]. Others, reported the stability constants for the bis- [Fe(Gly)2]
and the tris- [Fe(Gly)3] complexes in µ = 0.6 M using differential
pulse cathodic voltammetry [4-b]. The same study presented cyclic voltammetry
with one electron reversible behavior [4-b]. The crystal structure for
a tri-nuclear iron-Glycine complex was also presented three decades ago
. We are reporting the stability constants for newly discovered hydroxo-complexes
as well as their spectroscopic absorption spectra in aqueous solution at
REACTION OF MALIC ACID WITH MOLYBDENUM(VI)
IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS. Alana Antoine*
and Yahia Z. Hamada, LeMoyne-Owen College, Memphis,Tennessee. The
chemistry of molybdenum encounters very complex pathways even when reacting
with the simplest of ligands (the aqua ligand). Malic acid (Mal) is considered
to be a simple ligand that has strong metal binding ability. A detailed
literature survey of all American Chemical Society (ACS) Journals indicated
lack of reports regarding the aqueous solution chemistry of the Mo6+- Mal
system. When the term molybdenum was used in the literature survey, a total
of 1,211 hits were returned. When the term molybdenum and aqueous solutions
were combined as search-terms, only 22 articles were found. It is obvious
that from a through literature survey that this investigation on the Mo6+
and Mal system is merited. Using potentiometric and spectroscopic tools
we are investigating the reaction of this hi-valent metal ion with Malic
acid. We will present the potentiometric data collected thus far for this
reaction system because this project is a work in progress.