|CLASSIFICATION OF NONPYRAMIDAL
NEURONS BASED ON THE CORRELATION OF MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY. Angel
Barritt2, Shaul Hestrin1, and Mario Galarreta1.
Univ. of TN Memphis1, Dept Anat. & Neurobiol., Memphis,
TN, & Christian Brothers University2, Biol. Dept., Memphis,
An accurate classification of neurons
of the cerebral cortex is yet to be accomplished. The purpose of this research
was to determine if a correlation could be found between the morphology
and the physiology of nonpyramidal neurons to more accurately classify
these cell types. Physiological studies were conducted on cortical brain
sections of fourteen to twenty-one day old rats. Recorded neurons were
identified using the intracellular label biocytin. Immunologically identified
biocytin positive pyramidal and nonpyramidal neurons were classified on
the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics. Nonpyramidal
cells were classified as bitufted, bipolar, or multipolar. Physiologically,
the nonpyramidal cells were classified as fast-spiking or regular-spiking.
Bitufted and bipolar cells characteristically exhibited regular-spiking
action potentials, with multipolar cells showing fast-spiking action potentials.
Although it cannot be concluded that there is a direct causal relationship
between the morphology and the physiology of these neurons, distinct characteristics
of nonpyramidal cells observed in this study could be used to further explore
the function of cortical neurocircuitry. Supporting grant EY-09120.
EFFECTIVENESS OF PRIMER R105 AS A
GENETIC MARKER FOR CANINE HIP DYSPLASIA. Marlo Anderson1,
Amy Miller 2, Keith Murphy 2. 1Dept.
of Biol., Christian Brothers University, Memphis TN and 2Dept.
of Biol., Univ. of Memphis, Memphis, TN
Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) is a
polygenic disease that causes abnormal development of the hips. It results
partly from an increase in joint laxity. DNA from the Boykin Spaniel breed
has been previously analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA technique
using the primer r105. That analysis showed primer r105 gave a high percent
of correctness in identifying increased joint laxity. This current study
was conducted to expand on previous data by using the same primer r105,
but modifying that variables, sample size and selection of subjects. Our
results showed that primer r105 was inconsistent in the larger sample of
non-pedigree dogs. In our samples, primer r105 produced a large margin
of error in identifying dogs with increased joint laxity. We can conclude
primer r105 is a poor genetic marker for CHD, but may prove useful for
other genetic traits in a pure pedigree line.
INDUCTION OF CANCER CELL APOPTOSIS
BY DOXORUBICIN (DOX) AND N-BENZYLADRIAMYCIN-14-VALERATE (AD 198). Brinson
Boyte1 and Len Lothstein2 1Univ.
of TN., Memphis, Dept. of Pharmacology and 1Dept. of Biol.,
Christian Brothers Univ., Memphis TN.
The regulation of cancer cell apoptosis
by various anthracycline derivatives is an ongoing area of research. The
purpose of this experiment is to help determine if there are different
mechanisms of cytotoxicity in anthracyclines based on structural modifications.
The two drugs used in this experiment were Doxorubicin (DOX) and N-benzyladriamycin-14-valerate
(AD 198). Human leukemic cells of the CEM cell line were exposed to both
drugs at various concentrations and time frames. The cells were then counted
and examined for evidence of apoptosis using either Trypan Blue stain and
a hemocytometer or bis-benzimide stain and fluorescence microscopy. Each
cell count was used to determine an apoptotic index for that sample. The
apoptotic index, or number of apoptotic cells per three hundred counted,
was then used to compare the cytotoxicity of the two drugs. In repeated
trials AD 198 showed a greater apoptotic index and therefore greater cytotoxicity
no matter which concentration and time frame was used. These results help
to confirm the previous belief that DOX and AD 198, although structurally
similar, have different methods of apoptotic induction and mechanisms of
cytotoxicity. This conclusion can help open the door for further research
and improvement of anticancer drugs based on structural modifications.
EFFECTS OF HERBICIDAL TRANSLINE TREATMENT
OF PUERARIA LOBATA. Heather Carpenter1, and Jack
Grubaugh2, 1Dept. of Biol.,
Christian Brothers Univ., Memphis, TN and 2Dept. Of Biol., Univ.
of Memphis, Memphis, TN.
Pueraria lobata, commonly known
as the kudzu vine, was introduced to the southern United States in 1876.
Due to its progressive expansion, many persons have tried to control the
spread and possibly eliminate kudzu. Benthic Invertebrates can be used
as a bioindicator, where high diversity is indicative of a healthy environment.
In this study, the distribution of benthos from two ponds was investigated
before and after one pond area was treated with a legume specific herbicide,
Transline. This was done in order to observe the pollutant effects, if
any, of the treatment on the environment. The first pond was surrounded
by the kudzu vine (Kudzu pond), and the other pond was not (Payne's). The
area adjacent to Kudzu pond was treated with Transline. Pre and post-treatment
samples from both ponds were collected, washed, stained, and preserved
before taken to the laboratory where the benthos were visualized, extracted
and identified. Data was collected for analysis and manipulated using percent
dominance, number of taxa per sample collection, and Simpsonís index
of diversity. Results show no decrease in diversity, evenness or richness
between the benthic invertebrate samples taken pre and post-treatment.
In conclusion, these results can be generalized to no apparent immediate
effects, pollutant or other, on the immediate environment by the herbicidal
treatment of kudzu with Transline. Long term effects are unknown at this
CORRELATES OF NURSING HOMES RESIDENTS’
Y. H. Chan 2 and
Veronica Engle1 PhD, RN,
1The University of Tennessee, Memphis, College
of Nursing and 2Department of Biology, Christian Brothers University,
Previous research has documented
inadequate pain treatment of nursing home residents, especially Black residents.
This study described the relationship of resident pain frequency and intensity
with mental status, activities of daily living, depression, communication,
and demographic characteristics. Data were collected from 104 residents
as admitted sequentially to two large nursing homes serving indigent Black
and White older adults. There were 74% Black and 52% male residents, with
an average age of 68.4 (SD = 15.9) years. The federally-mandated resident
assessment instrument, the Minimum Data Set, was used to measure the study
variables. Residents with better long-term memory (r = -0.26), or greater
ability to feed themselves (r = -0.23), or who made negative statements
about themselves (r = 0.21), or who had less education (r = -0.21) reported
significantly (p > .05) more intense pain, and thus may be under-treated
for pain. No variables were significantly correlated with pain frequency.
Research supported by the NIH National
Institute of Nursing Research (1 R01 NR04299)
TICK CEMENT CONES. David
Conner 1, Lou Boykins2, and Lewis Coons2
Dept. of Biol., Christian Brothers University1,
Memphis, TN, and Integrative Microscopy Center, The University of Memphis2,
Ticks are of medical as well as
economical importance, because they are the number one vector for vector-borne
transmittable diseases. The purpose of these studies was to investigate
the relationship between the tick and its attachment to the host. Part
of this attachment is a cement cone that secures the tick. Partially fed
female Dermancentor variablis (5-7 days) were processed and viewed with
the scanning electron microscope. Samples of individual cement cones were
also dissected from these ticks. Micrographs reveal that the tick mouthparts
are anchored in the cement cone forming a sealed food canal for blood uptake
and shielding the tick from the host. Micrographs also reveal that the
cement cone has an amorphous surface. The cement cone has several functions
and plays a vital role in the relationship between the tick and the host.
CYTOSOLIC PHOSPHOLIPASE A2
(cPLA2) IS PHOSPHORYLATED AND ACTIVATED BY CALCIUM/CALMODULIN DEPENDENT
PROTEIN KINASE (CaMK II).
Matthew A. Dress 1,
Mubarack M. Muthalif 2, Jason L. Harper 2, and Kafait
U. Malik 2. 1Biology
Dept., Christian Brothers Univ., Memphis, TN and 2Dept. of Pharmacology,
College of Medicine, The Univ. of TN, Memphis, TN
It has been reported
that norepinephrine stimulates calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase
II (CaMK II), which activates cPLA2 and mitogen activated protein kinase
(MAPK) and releases arachidonic acid (Muthalif et al, 1996). Arachidonic
acid metabolites have been implicated in numerous physiological processes.
The products of arachidonic acid generated via cytochrome P-450 and lipoxygenase
activate MAPK which amplifies cPLA2 activity by a positive feedback mechanism
(Muthalif et al, 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine if CaMK
II directly phosphorylates and activates cPLA2. CaMK II obtained from rat
brain caused phosphorylation of purified recombinant cPLA2 (3 µg)
within 2 minutes. Phosphorylation continued in a time-dependent manner,
with a maximal phosphorylation occurring at 60 minutes. CaMK
II failed to phosphorylate cPLA2 in the absence of calcium ions (Ca2+)
and calmodulin. cPLA2 immunoprecipitated from rabbit vascular smooth muscle
cells was also phosphorylated in vitro by purified CaMK II. Addition of
MAPK further enhanced phosphorylation of recombinant cPLA2. Phosphoamino
acid analysis showed that cPLA2 is phosphorylated by CaMK II on serine
residues. These data suggest that CaMK II directly phosphorylates and activates
cPLA2, which is further activated upon phosphorylation by MAPK.
Supported by the American
Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
TRAINING AS A POTENTIAL TREATMENT FOR PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC GASTROINTESTINAL
PAIN. Vinh Q, Dang 1, Hani Rashed 2
and Debra Reser 2. 1Dept.
of Biol., Christian Brothers University, and 2Univ. of TN, UT
Bowld Hospt. Autonomic Function Lab, Memphis,TN.
symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal paon, and dizziness or fainting
are common in patients with motion sickness. In this study we evaluated
a method called Autogenic Feedback Training (AFTE) developed by NASA to
reduce GO symptoms experienced by astronauts in space travel. AFTE provides
individuals with the ability of modulating their physiological response
levels from their own resting baseline. We studied 10 patients (age 37+
3.8) before and after 4-6 sessions of AFTE. All patients had no known
cause for their symptoms. In AFTE sessions conducted over an 8-10 week
period, hear rate was utilized as a guide in measuring stress. Each session
consisted of 30 min. of training preceded and followed by 6 min. of baseline.
Autonomic function test and electrogastrogram were performed non-invasively
as previously reported (GE 196;945-950, 1994). Nausea, b;oating, abdominal
pain anorexia, and early satiety were quantified by the patient as 0=no
symptoms, 1=mild, 2=moderate, 3=severe. Heart rate and blood pressure were
measured as previously reported (Clin. Auton. Res. 7;93-96, 1997) and were
analyzed by t-tests and expressed as mean + SEM. Data collected revealed
that 1) 60% of all patients had improved as determined by total GI scores.
2) All patients had improved in at least three of the measured parameters
and were close to normal levels seen in healthy subjects. Our preliminary
results suggest that AFTE could be a potential method in alleviating common
GI symptoms in patients suffering from chronic motion sickness problems.
EFFECT OF IFN-g
ANTIBODY ON THE LATENCY PERIOD OF CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS INFECTION IN SCID MICE.
Michael Gipson1 Jerold E. Rehg2, Tony
Capizzani2,and Mark McGaw2; Christian
Brothers University1, Memphis, Tennessee and St. Jude Children’s
Research Hospital2, Memphis, Tennessee.
Cryptosporidiosis is an opportunistic
disease that causes severe dehydration and ultimately death in many immunocompromised
patients. The effect of IFN-g
antibody on the latency period of cryptosporidial infections in SCID mice
was evaluated. Different titered amounts of IFN-g
antibody secreting hybridoma cells were injected subcutaneously into SCID
mice to determine the optimal level of cells that would evoke a reduction
in the latency period. Mice were randomly selected from either 14 or 28
days post-oocyst inoculation for assessment of infection. The ileum from
each mouse was examined for the presence of infection. At both time periods
no significant sign of infection was seen in any of the hybridoma cell-injected
mice. Since the dexamethosone control groups did show infection as expected,
it is proposed that the hybridoma cells lost their ability to secrete the
antibody due to continuous cell culturing. By blocking IFN-g
, the infected mouse would show a peak level of infection, possibly as
early as two weeks post-inoculation, thus decreasing the latency period
of infection. This allows the researcher to run more experiments and test
for the effectiveness of more chemotherapeutic agents than would be possible
with current constraints. This experiment was funded by the NIH and ALSAC.
THE EFFECTS OF PUERARIA LOBATA ON
THE DIVERSITY OF PLANT SPECIES. Elizabeth Graham 1 ,
and Scott Franklin 2 Dept. of Biol., Christian
Brothers University 1, and Dept. of Biol., University of Memphis
2, Memphis, TN.
The kudzu vine, Pueraria Lobata,
has the ability to destroy valuable forests by reaching up to heights of
40 feet or more depending on the substrate the kudzu is growing on, thereby
preventing underlying trees and plants to receive sunlight. This physical
blockage prevents photosynthesis from occurring and causes trees to die.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects kudzu had on the
diversity of plant species under the kudzu vine. The reestablishment of
plants after the eradication of the kudzu by using a herbicide was also
investigated. Two areas adjacent to ponds were used in this study at Meeman
Biological Station in Shelby Forest, Payne’s Pond, which served as a control
having no kudzu surrounding it, and Kudzu Pond which was completely surrounded
by kudzu. A third area, Kudzu slope, was also a control which was covered
in kudzu but no herbicide was applied to this area. Forty plots of soil
adjacent to each pond were studied for diversity of plant species and percent
coverage of the foliage of each plant. The herbicide, Transline, was then
applied to the area around Kudzu Pond and the kudzu was eradicated, while
no herbicide was sprayed at Payneís Pond. The plots at Kudzu Pond
were then monitored for regrowth of plants. The results showed that the
initial diversity of plant species was much greater at Payneís Pond
as expected, showing that kudzu is harmful to other plant species living
in that area. There were no plants found growing under the kudzu before
its eradication. Plants were observed growing after herbicide treatment
and seeds must have originated from dispersed by wind, water, or animals
to that area. In conclusion, the kudzu vine has devastating effects on
plant life where the vine grows, and if it is eradicated to save valuable
forests it is destroying, new seedlings will most likely have to be introduced
for reforestation to occur.
REDUCTION OF NITRATE TO NITRITE:
DOES VARYING NADPH CONCENTRATIONS IMPROVE NITRITE RECOVERY? G.
Grokulsky 2, Y.-B. Wang 1, E.S. Kang 1.
Depts. Pharmacol. & Peds. 1, Univ.
of TN, Memphis, TN and Dept of Biol, Christian Brothers Univ. 2,
Nitric oxide (NO) is essential for
the regulation of many physiological and pathological processes. Quantification
of NO itself is difficult because NO is readily oxidized by molecular oxygen
to nitrite (NO2) and nitrate (NO3). The Greiss reaction can be used to
quantify NO levels as NO2, but not as NO3. Prior to assay, Reduction of
NO3 to NO2 using nitrate reductase in the presence of nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is possible before the Greiss reaction.
A second enzyme/substrate system, glutathione reductase and oxidized gultathione,
can oxidize excess NADPH to NADP. NADP would not interfere with the Greiss
assay. Determining the optimal NADPH concentration for recovery of NO2+NO3
by this 2-step reaction was the objective. Mixed standards of NO2 and NO3
from 10-100 micromolar (uM)were analyzed by the 2-step method with 0.25,
0.5, 0.75 and 1 millimolar (mM) NADPH. Recovery as NO2 of NO2+NO3 greater
than 20 uM diminished as NADPH was decreased. Recovery of NO2+NO3 less
than 20 uM was not diminished across the NADPH concentrations studied.
Recovery of NO2 at all concentrations of NO2+NO3 was close to 100% at 1mM
NADPH. These findings indicate that optimal recovery of total NO2 by the
Greiss reaction after reduction of NO3 to NO2 is achieved using 1.0 mM
THE CONTRIBUTION OF p70s6k IN ?-HEXOSAMINIDASE
A (Hex A) STIMULATED PROLIFERATION OF BOVINE AIRWAY SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS.
J R Jackson 1, Y Zhao 2 and D B Lew
2. 1Dept of Biology, Christian Brothers
University, Memphis,TN, 2Dept. of Pediatrics, University of
Tennessee, Memphis, TN.
Ribosomal p70s6k (p70s6k) is a mitogen
activated serine/threonine kinase that is required for cell growth and
G1 cell cycle progression. We investigated the role of p70s6k in Hex A
stimulated bovine airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) proliferation. Cellular
proliferation of airway muscle is a key factor in airway remodeling, a
well-recognized pathological change in asthma. Rapamycin (1.0 nM, 30 min
pretreatment), a known inhibitor of p70s6k, inhibited DNA synthesis (100%)
and Hex A (50nM) induced cellular proliferation (53%) as measured by 3H-thymidine
incorporation and tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT) assays. Rapamycin also
inhibited p70s6k activation in Hex A stimulated ASMC as measured by immune
complex in vitro kinase assay. These data suggest that p70s6k is important
to cellular proliferation in Hex A stimulated ASMC which may assist us
in developing a drug that affects airway remodeling in asthma.
Research supported by NIH, HL-56812.
THE IMPORTANCE OF POLYAMINES IN RETINAL
PIGMENTED EPITHELIAL CELLS. Jonathan R. Keith 2 and Dianna
Johnson 1, Dept. of Biol., Christian Brothers
University 2, Memphis, TN & Dept.Ophthalmol., Univ. of TN
1 Memphis, TN.
The Retinal Pigmented Epithelial
Cell layer serves and protects the integrity of the neural retina to carry
out proper function. Many diseases are considered to be solely a result
of retinal dysfunction, but may actually be the result of RPE dysfunction.
One possibility for dysfunction are compounds known as polyamines which
aid in regulation of cellular processes such speed and accuracy of gene
transcription and protein phosphroylation. Therefore, we examined the importance
of polyamines in RPE development. RPE cells were isolated from fetal rabbits.
Once cultures had been established, the cells were grown in serum free
culture over a three day period in DFMO to block polyamine synthesis. The
cells were fixed in 4% Paraformaldehyde overnight and then stained using
the fluorescent tag Rhodamine conjugated phalloidan, which binds f-actin
filaments and examined them under a fluorescent microscope to observe cell
morphology. When compared to RPE grown in normal cell culture, the DFMO
treated cells appeared deformed. These results suggest that polyamines
may be essential to maintain normal function in RPE cells and that polyamine
depletion could be a trigger for retinal dysfunction.
Supported by NEI grant 1655 and
by Research to Prevent Blindness.
PHOTORECEPTOR CELL DEVELOPMENT IN
DISSOCIATED RETINAL CULTURES. (T.E. O’Leary 1,
C.M. Withrow2, and D.A. Johnson2) Dept.
of Biol., Christian Brothers Univ1., Memphis, TN and Dept. of
Ophthalmol., Univ. of TN2 Memphis, TN
Purpose. We have examined cell cultures
of developing rabbit retina in order to investigate the cellular aggregation.
We have also examined the preferential separation of inner and outer retina
layers in culture. Methods. Dissociated retinal cultures were grown in
control medium. Some cultures were co-cultured with retinal pigment epithelium
(RPE) to identify any relation between retinal cells and RPE. The samples
were stained with toluidine blue stain, a general cytoplasmic stain, that
allows for visualization of the retinal cell bodies. Results. The dissociated
cell cultures formed aggregates of two types. One containing cells from
the inner retina and the other with cells from the outer retina. The outer
retinal aggregates, termed rosettes, consisted of a horizontal cell surrounded
by photoreceptor cells. When RPE was added to the cultures, the RPE cells
preferentially appeared with rosettes.The two types of clusters were attached
to different regions of the cover slip. The aggregates formed within one
hour in culture. Given longer time intervals, the aggregates became more
compact. Conclusions. The rapid separation of the cell aggregates shows
preferential cell to cell adhesion is taking place. Formation of two separate
cell cluster types could result from a specific binding site.
Supported by NEI grant 1655 and
by Research to Prevent Blindness.
CONTRIBUTION OF ARACHIDONIC ACID
METABOLITES OF CYTOCHROME P-450 AND RAS GTPASE TO DEOXYCORTICOSTERONE-SALT
INDUCED HYPERTENSION IN RATS. Suzana Malik 1, Mubarik
Muthalif 2, K.U. Malik2 , and Ibrahim Benter 2,
2Dept. of Pharmacology, Univ. of TN, &
1Dept. of Biol., Christian Brothers Univ., Memphis, TN.
Administration of deoxycorticosterone
acetate (DOCA) to rats drinking 1% sodium chloride (NaCl0 solution causes
hypertension. The vasoactive agents produced are known to stimulate release
of arachidonic acid (AA) from tissue phospholipids. The AA metabolites
generated via cytochrome P-450 pathway mainly, 20-hydroxycorcortico-steronic
acid (20-HETE) increase vascular tone, and stimulate Ras GTPase and mitogen
activated protein kinase (Ras/MAPK). The purpose of this study was to determine
if specific AA metabolites are involved in DOCA/NaCl induced hypertension
in Sprague Dawley rats. Administration of DOCA to the rats (all animals
in the study had an uninephrectomy) drinking 1% NaCl solution for five
weeks increased mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) which was higher than
rats treated with vehicle of DOCA. Administration of CYP-450 inhibitor
aminobenzotriazole (ABT) reduced MABP, and infusion of farnesyl proteint
transferase inhibitor, FPT III, also decreased MABP. Data suggests one
or more metabolites of AA formed through CYP-450, most likely 20-HETE,
contributes to development of DOCA/NaCl hypertension probably by activating
Ras via MAPK pathway. This study was supported by the NIH Grant 19134-24.
CYTOKINE RESPONSE OF MACROPHAGES
EXPOSED TO ORTHOPAEDIC IMPLANT PARTICLES. Alfredo Narvaez
1, Steven J. Charlebois 2, and Richard A. Smith 2,
1Dept. of Biol, Christian Brothers Univ.,
Memphis, TN and 2The Univ. of Tennessee-Campbell Clinic Department
of Orthopaedic Surgery, Memphis, TN
The purpose of this study was to
measure cytokine levels from macrophages exposed to particles of two orthopaedic
implant materials. The cytokines measured (IL-1b, IL-6 and TNFa) are known
to be involved in osteolysis, a major contributor to orthopaedic implant
failure. Macrophages are currently thought of as the major cellular mediator
of osteolysis. A transformed mouse macrophage cell line (ATCC, IC-21) was
cultured on glass cover slips coated with fibronectin in six well tissue
culture plates. Macrophages were exposed to cobalt-chrome or commercially
pure titanium particles in a 1:1 cell/particle ratio. Zymosan and lipopolysaccharide
(LPS) particles (10µg/ml) were used as positive controls. After 24
hours supernatants were assayed for cytokines. Cytokines from cells exposed
to implant particles were 10 to 100 times lower than for the positive controls
(LPS and Zymosan). Image analysis showed that the macrophages were highly
associated with the particles. Confocal microscopy was used to confirm
that the cells were engulfing the particles. Discrepancies between this
work and previous studies which have shown high levels of these cytokines
in response to cobalt-chrome and titanium particles may be due to endotoxins
such as LPS adsorbed to their surface. A current hypothesis is that the
particles, though sterile, may not be clean. The surface of these particles
may contain adherent endotoxin that could trigger the high cytokine responses
that have been observed in other in-vitro studies.
MENSTRUAL CYCLE AFFECTS TILT-TABLE
TESTS IN WOMEN
Ash Rasoul 1,
Judith Soberman MD 2,Pamela Jordan MSN 2, & Matthew
Robinett, BS 2 1Dept.
of Biol., Christian Brothers University , and 2Dept. of Cardiology,
University of TN, Memphis, TN.
Background: A previous study in
UT Bowld's Cardiology Lab, illustrated that there maybe differences in
tilt-table testing results due to cyclical hormonal variation in the women.
This study investigated this hypothesis with tilt table studies on women
with normal menstrual cycles. Methods: Women, ages 18-35, with regular
menstrual cycles and no previous history of syncope were randomly assigned
to both a control (80 degrees) and either a premenstrual or preovulatory
(70 degrees) trial. The test ended with either syncope or completion of
protocol. Results: Approximately 1/3 of the subjects tested in the control
experienced syncope. In the preovulatory trials, 1/2 of the subjects fainted.
In the premenstrual trial, no fainting occurred. Conclusions: Cyclical
variation in hormone levels due to the specific phase of the menstrual
cycle can significantly affect the results of tilt table testing in women.
EFFECTS OF PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE
ON THE SIZES OF THE CORPUS CALLOSUM, HIPPOCAMPAL COMMISSURE, AND ANTERIOR
COMMISSURE. Uyen Vu 1, Dan Livy 2, and
Andrea Elberger 2, 1Christian
Brothers University, Biology Department, Memphis, TN, and 2The
University of Tennessee at Memphis, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is
a disorder associated with a pattern of behavioral, facial, and central
nervous system abnormalities caused by alcohol consumption in the womb.
Previous autopsy studies have indicated that one particular region in the
brain, the corpus callosum, is especially susceptible to the toxic effects
of alcohol. Recent studies using the noninvasive resonance imaging technique
have found a decrease in corpus callosum area in humans. In this study,
the sizes of the corpus callosum (CC), hippocampal commissure (HC), and
the anterior commissure (AC) were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats from
prenatal and control treatment groups. Using a Kodak DCS 460 digital camera,
images were taken of the mid-sagittal section. From these images, measurements
were taken with the analysis program Lasersharp. There was no significant
difference observed in sizes between the alcohol and control treatment
groups. Thus, this data suggests that other factors in addition to alcohol
exposure may have contributed to the reduction in the CC seen in previous
Supported by: NIH Grant AA-11325