Dr. Anna E. Ross's
Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Course:
BIOL 212 ~ Comparative Anatomy and Lab
This page is no longer being updated.
Dr. Ross retired from CBU in May 2019.
Dr. Lyndsey Pierson now teaches Comparative Anatomy at CBU.

Dr. Anna E. Ross
Professor Emerita of Biology
Christian Brothers University
A.E.R.'s Home Page
This email will remain active after my retirement
Spring Semester 2018 Office hours:
Mon., Wed., Thurs., & Fri. 2:00-4:30.
Rib articulation to thoracic vertebra of the salamander, Necturus CONTENTS: Comparative Anatomy Course Resources
Lecture Units & Links
  • Unit 1  Origins
  • Unit 2  Phylogeny
  • Unit 3  Skin & Skull
  • Unit 4  Skeleton & Muscle
  • Unit 5  Digestion & Respiration
  • Unit 6  Circulation, Excretion, & Reproduction

  • PowerPoint Slides:
  • [Restricted to CBU]  Updated lecture slides are available on the shared directory:  \winfile2\biology
  • The shared directory can be accessed from any computer on campus (including dorms and apartments).
    See PowerPoint slides for details on Exam Format & Coverage. 
  • Room AH 107 Schedule
  • Dr. Kilburn's Vert. Zool.
  • Cat Anatomy Tutorial (Kenyon)
  • Cat dissection photos
  • Bird cinema
  • John James Audubon Birds of America
  • Smithsonian North American Mammals
  • ARKive images, video and info on endangered animals
  • Frogs: The Thin Green Line (Nature - full episode online)
  • Weekly Labs:  Web Resources, Quiz coverage, etc.
    Lab 1 Protochordates
    Photos:  acorn worm
    Lab 2 Lamprey & hagfish
    Lab 3 a&b Fish anatomy & phylogeny; Scales & Skin (two sessions)
    Lab 4 Shark & Amphibian skeleton
    Photos: Shark skull
    Photos: Necturus skull
    Lab 5 Mammal skeleton
    Lab 6 Muscles Shark & Necturus
    Photos: Necturus muscles
    Lab 7& 8 Muscles Cat
    Lab 9 Dig. & Resp. Sys.
    Lab10 Circ. Sys Shark & Necturus
    Photo: Shark heart
    Lab 11 Mammal Circ Sys & Heart
    Lab 12 Urogenital Sys.
    Lab 13 Shark NS & Sense Organs
    Photos: Shark brain   Photo: Shark eye
    Lab 14a Mammal N.S.
    Lab 14b Mammal Sense Organs
  • Paleontologist (They MightBe Giants)
  •  Syllabus, etc.
  • Course Information
  • Professor
  • Text, Lab Manual
  • Lecture Schedule
  • Course Policies, Grading

  • Use the links to weekly labs and to lecture units for WWW resources arranged according to course topic.
  • Numerous illustrations and other study resources for the course are available via the shared directory.
  • Syllabus for Spring 2018  (pdf  to download)
  • Moodle

  •  Enrolled students can see quiz and exam scores using Moodle 
  • Photo below: Students in Comp Anat lab, Spring 2000

    Students in Comparative Anatomy Lab, Spring 2000
     "There are two names for everything in anatomy, except... dramatic pause... 
    when there are three or more." Dr. Terry Meehan
    "You cannot be a great anatomist, unless you know 87 different names for the same damn thing!" Dr. Roberta Meehan
      Spring 2018 Course Information
    BIOL 212  Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy and Lab
    • Lecture-Discussion: Mon., Wed., and Fri. at 9:00-9:50 a.m. in AH 122. 
    • Laboratory: Tuesday at 2:00-5:20 p.m. in AH 107.
    • (Lecture and Lab are co-requisites and must be taken concurrently.) 
    • Comparative Anatomy is a Group II Biology Elective applicable to the biology major.
    A study of the structural and functional evolution of selected organ systems in representative vertebrates. The first part of the course reviews the principals of the comparative method and the phylogenetic (evolutionary) relationships among vertebrates. In the remainder of the course, structures and their organization are interpreted in terms of their embryological development, phylogeny, and functional adaptations.

    A cooperative and open atmosphere is characteristic of all class and lab meetings. Lecture and laboratory materials will often overlap, and some use of lab time to review lecture concepts is expected. The laboratory room will be available for additional study during posted hours. You will want to take advantage of the opportunity to study in the lab in addition to the required class and lab sessions.  Students are encouraged to study together. The laboratory course will require your active participation in the dissection of vertebrate specimens including shark, amphibian and cat. The lab is a required part of the course.

    Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and 112 (Principles of Biology I and II and their labs) and Chem 113 or higher. BIOL 211 (Vertebrate Embryology and lab) is highly recommended as a prerequisite. Students who have not achieved at least a "C" in each of the prerequisite courses are advised to repeat the necessary courses before attempting further course work in Biology.
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    • Dr. Anna E. Ross, Professor of Biology. 
    • Office: AH 111 

    • Phone: 321-3436 (Please record a message if I'm not in the office.) 
      e-mail: aross@cbu.edu
      Dr. Ross's Home Page http://facstaff.cbu.edu/aross
    • Office Hours: (Spring semester 2018)

    • Mon., Wed., Thurs., and Fri. 2:00-4:30.
      Additional appointment times are available upon request (see posted schedule).
      Required Materials for the 2018 Comparative Anatomy Course 

    • Text:  Liem, Karl F., Bemis, Walker, and Grande.  2001.  Functional Anatomy of the Vertebrates: An Evolutionary Perspective. Third edition. Harcourt College Publishers. ISBN 978-0030223693 Amazon  Used ~$21.
    • Laboratory Manual: Wischnitzer, Saul. 2007. Atlas and Dissection Guide for Comparative Anatomy, 6th edition. Freeman.   ISBN 978-0716769590  Amazon Used ~$45.
    • Course Supplement: Ross, Anna E. 2017. BIOL 212 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Lecture and Laboratory Course Supplement, 2017 edition. CBU Printing Services. 
    • Optional Lab References: 
      • Fishbeck, Dale W. and Aurora Sebastiani.  2008.  Comparative Anatomy:  A Vertebrate Dissection Guide.  2nd ed. Morton Publ. Co.  ISBN 978-0895827487.  Amazon Used ~$20.  Also acceptable but more expensive: 3rd edition 978-1617310423.  Amazon Used $66.
    • Students must provide their own disposable gloves (latex or nitrile examination gloves).  Most lab meetings will require at least two pairs of gloves per student.
       Syllabus for Spring 2018 (pdf to download)
    Students in Comparative Anatomy Lab, Spring 2000

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      Comparative Anatomy Laboratory Schedule 
    Lab Topic
      Lab #1
    Protochordates and Chordates: Anatomy, Phylogeny, & Taxonomy
    • Numerous illustrations and other study resources for the course are available via the shared directory:
      • \\winfile2\biology
    • CD's available in AH 107:
      • Introduction to the Vertebrates
      • Survey of the Animal Kingdom: Fishes (including agnathans)
      • Animal Classification: The Classification of Vertebrates
    Web sites useful for Lab #1:

    Acorn worm, Balanoglossus. Click photo to see larger image.
    • Vocabulary practice: Possession of a notochord is apomorphic in deuterostomes, is synapomorphic in chordates and is plesiomorphic in vertebrates.  (By the way, synapomorphy is sometimes spelled synaptomorphy.)
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      Lab #2
    Lamprey: Larva and Adult and other Agnathans
    Lab QUIZ 1 (Covers Protochordates and primitive Chordates)
    CD's available in AH 107:
    • Introduction to the Vertebrates
    • Survey of the Animal Kingdom: Fishes (including agnathans)
    • Animal Classification: The Classification of Vertebrates
    Web Sites for Lab #2:
      |Back to Contents|
    Spring 2006 CAnat Lab

    Spring 2006 Comp Anat Lab

    Lab #3 a & b  (Two lab sessions)
    Fish Phylogeny and Anatomy; Skin & Scales of Vertebrates
    Lab QUIZ 2 (Covers lamprey adult & larva plus primitive chordates) 
    CD's available in AH 107:
    • Introduction to the Vertebrates
    • Survey of the Animal Kingdom: Fishes (including agnathans)
    • Animal Classification: The Classification of Vertebrates
    Web sites for Lab #3 (Fish phylogeny, fish anatomy; Comparative Skin & Scales):
  • Scales, Skin, and Feathers
  • Spring 2006 Comp Anat LabSpring 2006 Comp Anat Lab
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      Lab #4
    Shark & Amphibian Skeleton
    Lab QUIZ 3 (Covers fish phylogeny, skin & scales)
    Shark Chondrocranium, dorsal view.Shark Chondrocranium, dorsal view.
    Above: Shark Chondrocranium, dorsal view.
    Right: Squalus, freeze dried.  Left: stained, plastic embedded.  Click photo to see larger image.
    Shark Chondrocranium, ventral view.Shark teeth.
    Left: Shark Chondrocranium, ventral view.     Right:  Shark teeth.
    Left: Squalus, freeze dried specimen.  Click photo  to see larger image.
    Necturus skull, dorsal view.Necturus skull, ventral view.
    Left: Necturus skull, dorsal view.     Right: Necturus skull, ventral view.
    Necturs skull, side view
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    Lab #5
    Mammal Skeleton (Cat)
  • Bones of the antebrachium:  "P-U" (Pinkie-Ulna:  the "pinkie" finger and ulna are both medial; the radius is lateral.
  • Bones of the shank (crus) i.e., the distal hind leg:  Can't tell your tib from your fib?  The TIBia is the Thick,Inner Bone. The FibuLa is Finer, Fluted, and Lateral. 
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      Lab #6
    Muscles (Shark and Necturus)
      Lab Quiz 5 (Covers mammal & amphibian skeleton)
    Squalus acanthias  This species is used in the popular British dish "fish and chips" as well as marketed for its oil and as fish meal.  Source: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/SpinyDogfish/SpinyDogfish.html
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    Lab #7
    LAB MIDTERM EXAM, 100 pts.
    Skin the Cat, Cat Muscles Study of Cat Muscles continues in Lab #8

    Lab #8
    Cat Muscles, continued.
       |Back to Contents|
      Lab #9
    Digestive and Respiratory Systems
      |Back to Contents|
      Lab #10 
    Circulatory Systems (Shark, Necturus)
    Shark heart, ventral view.  Squalus.
    Shark heart, ventral view.  Squalus. Click photo  to see larger image.
    Comparative Anatomy students quiz one another on the shark circulatory system (2006)Comparative Anatomy students quiz one another on the shark circulatory system (2006)Comparative Anatomy students quiz one another on the shark circulatory system (2006)
    Comparative Anatomy students quiz one another on the shark circulatory system (2006)Comparative Anatomy students study the necturus circulatory system (2006)Comparative Anatomy students study the necturus circulatory system (2006)
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      Lab #11
    Circulatory Systems (Cat; Pig Heart; DVD)
      |Back to Contents|
      Lab #12
    Urogenital Sys. (Shark, Necturus, Cat)
    Lab QUIZ 9 (Covers mammal circulatory system)
      |Back to Contents
      Lab #13
    Shark Nervous System and Shark Sense Organs
      Lab QUIZ 10 (Covers urogenital system)
    • Shark brain and ear dissection  (scroll down)
    • Shark eye lab
    • Numerous illustrations and other study resources for the course are available via the shared directory: \\winfile2\biology

    Above: Dorsal views of shark brain and inner ear dissection.

    Above: Dissected shark eye, Squalus. Click photo  to see larger image.
  • Renaming Bird Brain Anatomy (The Scientist May 2004)
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    Lab #14
    Mammal Nervous System
    Lab QUIZ 11 (Covers shark N.S. & Sense Organs)
    Lab QUIZ 12 (Covers Mammal Brain) Lab Quiz 12 will be given at the start of lecture class on the Friday following the last lab meeting.
    Last Lab Session 2012
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    Optional supplement to Lab #14
    Mammal Eye and Ear
      Lab QUIZ 12 (Covers Mammal Brain) Lab Quiz 12 will be given during lecture on Friday following the last lab meeting.
       Scheduled during Exam Week: LAB FINAL EXAM (100 points)
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    Melody Allensworth and Evan Kraus 2007Adam Luka and John Legge 2007Isaac Barr and Blake Jackson 2007
    Rebecca Bastnagel and Antony Eddy 2007Danielle Howell and Daniel Darnell 2007Rosie Britton, Jason Porter, Madiha Sayani, and Alicia Scarborough 2007
    Antidotes & Anecdotes:  Docs vs. Vets
    Kerri, a veterinarian, was feeling ill and went to see Dr. West. He began to ask all the usual questions--her symptoms, duration, and the like-- when Kerri suddenly cut him off. "Hey, look, I'm a vet," she declared. "I don't need to ask my patients these kinds of questions-- I can tell what's wrong just by looking at them. Why can't you?" The doctor just nodded in response, looked Kerri up and down, and wrote out a prescription. He handed it to her and said, "There you are. Now of course, if that doesn't work, we'll have to have you put down."  Source:  Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW.com)
      Comparative Anatomy Lecture Schedule
      Week Lecture Topic Links
    Unit 1:
    Unit 1:
    Comparative Anatomy Ch. 1
    Evolution and Phylogenies Ch 1-2
    Synapomorphies (shared derived characteristics)
    Plesiomorphies* (original, or "primitive" characteristics).
  • Phylogenetic Systematics
  • What is Cladistics?
  • Cladistics (AMNH)
  • Cladistics (ReefQuest)
  • Phylogenetic Systematics (Berkeley)
  • Definitions; evolutionary systematics, Cladistics:  Paleos.com (with details on each group)
  • Homology & Cladistics (Read & study the 1st page of this exercise)
  • Tree of Life (Arizona)
  • Museum of Paleontology (Berkeley) Excellent!
  • Geologic Time Scale (U. Calgary)
  • T. H. Huxley
  • Haeckel and Heterochrony
  • Haeckel:  Ontogeny & Phylogeny
  • Evolution, Ontogeny & Phylogeny (Dr. Irwin)
  • Heterochrony and Evolution (Carleton)
  • Scientific Names
  • Taxonomy (Smithsonian)
  •   2 Holiday
    Evolution and Phylogenies Ch 1-2
    Origin of Vertebrates Ch. 2
  • Evolution and the Fossil Record (Paleontological Society) Acobat Reader
  • Phylum Chordata (U Mich Animal Diversity Web)
  • Vertebrates(U MichAnimal Diversity Web)
  • Classes of Vertebrates Tutorial
  • Ostracoderm Fossils (Dr. Atkins)
  •   3 Agnatha Ch. 3
    Placoderms; Chondrichthyes Ch. 3
    Chondrichthyes Ch. 3
    Placoderms (with examples)
    Placoderms and Chondrichthyes (Dr. Atkins)
    Live shark cam (Discovery)
    Prehistoric Shark Gallery (Discovery)
    Unit 2: 4 Chondrichthyes Ch 3
    Osteichthyes Ch 3
    LECTURE EXAM 1, 100 pts.
    (Exam 1:  Ch. 1, 2, 3 thu Chondrichthyes) 
    Sharks (Seaworld)
    About sharks     Shark information
    Chondrichthyes  (Berkeley)
    Chondricthyes (Texas A&M)
    Autopsy of a Great White Shark (Article in SF Gate News 22 Jan 2001)
      5 Unit 2 begins with Osteichthyes Ch. 3
    Osteichthyes Ch 3
    Amphibia Ch. 3
    Reptilia; Aves Ch. 3
    Aves; Mammalia Ch. 3
    Mammalia Ch. 3
    Coelacanth: Modern and Fossil specimens (Natural History)
    Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary extinction
    Bony fishes (Seaworld)
    Nova Missing Link (Evolution of Tetrapods during the Devonian)
    Amniotes (Tree of Life)
    Dinosaurs (U Berkeley)
    Dinosaurs (Tyrell)    Crocodilian  photos
    First Bipedal lizard  Bipedal lizard
    New Data on Turtle Phylogeny
    Flyin' Dinosaurs (Sci Amer)
    NOVA "Four-winged Dinosaur" (watch online)
    Mass Extinction (Nova)
    It's a Bird, It's a...Dinosaur? (Sci Amer)
    Evidence of Feathered Lizards (ABC news)   Feathered Dinosaur
    A Bird With a Dinosaur Toe?      Dinosaur Update (NPR)
    Bird Origins (Ritchison, EKU)
    Bird Identification (Patuxent)
    The Mammals of Texas:  fully illustrated and searchable.
    Evolutionary Origin of Whales (Science News 2001)

    Unit 3:
    6 LECTURE EXAM 2, 100 pts.
    (Exam 2 Cumulative, emphasis on Ch. 3)
    Unit 3:
    Integument Ch. 6
    Integument & Head Skeleton Ch. 6-7
    Fish Scales
    Feathers originated and diversified in dinosaurs before birds or flight evolved
    Comparing Mammary Gland Structure
    Mammal Skulls (U Mich Animal Diversity Web)
    Baleen Whales
      7 Head Skeleton Ch. 7
    Head Skeleton Ch. 7, 22
    Head and Trunk Skeleton Ch. 7-8
    Kinds of teeth
    Duck bill vs. Quail beak:  Neural Crest transplant experiments
    Skeletal Anatomy of sheep, pig, bird
    Unit 4:
    8 Skeleton Ch. 8
    LECTURE EXAM 3, 100 pts. (Chs. 6-7, 22)
    Unit 4:
    Trunk and Append. Skeleton Ch. 8-9
    Skeleton gallery
    Spring Break
    Necturus vertebra and rib 9 Skeleton Ch. 8-9
    Skeleton Ch. 8-9
    Muscular System Ch. 10
    Lobe fin and Amphibian Limb (Natural History, Coelacanth article)
    Vestigial structures reveal phylogeny (Whale)
    Mammal leg skel (U Mich)
     Unit 4:
    10 Muscular System Ch. 10
    Muscular System Ch. 10
    LECTURE EXAM 4, 100 pts. (Chs. 8-10)

    Unit 5: 11 Unit 5:
    Body Cavity and Mesenteries Ch. 4
    Digestive System Ch. 16
    No class meeting Friday: Holiday (Easter)
    Dental Anatomy of various Mammals (Colorado State)
    Digestive Physiology of Herbivores (Colorado State)
    Digestive Physiology of Birds (Colorado State)
    Microbe Zoo: Ruminant Stomach
    Digestive System of Meat Animals
      12 Digestive System Ch. 17
    Digestive System Ch. 17
    Respiratory System Ch. 18
    Cat food for aardvarks and other zoo diets

    Australian lungfish

      13 Respiratory System Ch. 18
    Respiratory System Ch. 18
    LECTURE EXAM 5, 100 pts.(Chs. 4, 15-18)
     Bird Respiratory System (Eastern Kentucky Univ)
    Unit 6: 14 Unit 6:
    Circulatory System Ch. 19
    Circulatory System Ch. 19
    Circulatory & Excretory System  Ch. 19-20
    Compare circulation in hagfish, fish, lungfish, frog, turtle, crocodile, mammal and bird (HHMI)
      15 Excretory System Ch. 20
    Excretory System Ch. 20
    Reproductive System Ch. 21
    Bovine Obstetrics images
      16 Reproductive System Ch. 21
        (Final Exams)
    LECTURE EXAM 6, 100 pts. (Chs. 19-21)
    Live Animal Cams (streaming video)
    Sounds of Marine Animals
    Please note:Exam dates will not be changed unless the majority of the class agrees. Lab exam dates are firm. There may be minor changes in the scheduling of lecture topics.

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    Student Responsibilities



    You are responsible for all information presented during lecture and laboratory sessions. Lecture and Laboratory attendance are required. Laboratory sessions will usually require the entire scheduled period. You will be responsible for cleaning up before you leave lab. Therefore, do not expect to be out of lab before the scheduled time. Attendance at quizzes and exams is required. If you miss lecture or lab for any reason, you will need to inform me and you are responsible for making up the missed work on your own time (you must have me verify that you have made up missed lab work).Unexcused absences will lower your grade. Excessive absences are grounds for automatic failure.

    Laboratory attendance is required. In a laboratory course, there is simply no substitute for "being there." Much of the benefit of the lab course is derived from your active participation during the scheduled lab meetings. You will learn more by working with your classmates doing the lab than can be assessed by any quiz or exam. In fact, your active participation in lab is so important that no quiz or exam scores could possibly be high enough to compensate for missing the actual experience of being present in the laboratory. Therefore, you must attend all of the labs to pass the course.

    You will need to read the assigned text material and the appropriate lab material before you come to lecture or lab. You will need your textbook and course supplement with you during all lecture meetings and most labs. You will need your lab manual and course supplement for all lab meetings. The lab room (AH 107) will be available during posted hours so that you can review lab materials and complete lab assignments. You will want to spend about two hours per week working in AH 107 in addition to the scheduled lab sessions.

    The course has been structured to afford you every opportunity to develop your ability to learn, to master the required material, and to demonstrate your success in these endeavors. Students who choose to enroll in this course are seeking rigorous pre-professional preparation. This course will provide the level of preparation you require. Nevertheless, you need not feel intimidated by the demanding career path you have selected. I am here to help you overcome any difficulties you may have with the course material and to help you do your best work.

    Exams and Grading.

    • Your grade will be determined by your own achievement. There is no curve.
    • Grading scale: 90.0-100% = A, 80.0-89.9% = B, 70.0-79.9% = C, 60.0-69.9% = D, below 60.0% = F.
      • An honor system is in effect for all exams and quizzes. It is considered a violation of the CBU Code of Conduct to receive or give assistance during an examination or quiz. Quizzes and exams are returned, but students may not keep exam or quiz questions.
      • In this course, the use of old quizzes or examinations is considered a violation of the CBU Code of Conduct and is grounds for automatic failure.
      Makeup lecture exams, lab exams, or quizzes will only be available under extraordinary circumstances.
      If you miss a quiz or exam without prior arrangement or fail to notify me within one hour of the scheduled class time to arrange a specific time for a make up quiz or exam, you will not be eligible for a makeup quiz or exam and you will receive a zero for the missed quiz or exam. 
    The Lecture Course:

    Six lecture exams will be given. Exams are 100 points each (a total of 600 points for the course). Lecture quizzes may be given on short notice, if so, they will increase the 600 point total to the lecture course and no makeups will be available for quizzes missed due to unexcused absenceAll lecture exams are comprehensive.  No exam may be dropped. Makeup exams will only be available under extraordinary circumstances.

    If you miss an exam you must either have made prior arrangement for a makeup exam or you must notify me within one hour of the scheduled exam time to request and schedule a makeup exam, otherwise you will not be eligible for a makeup exam and you will receive a zero for the missed exam. It is YOUR responsibility to arrange a specific time to take a makeup exam. Ordinarily, any makeup exam must be completed BEFORE the next class session. Ordinarily, a student will be granted no more than one makeup exam for the course.

    Lecture exams will cover the topics indicated on the attached schedule unless specific changes are announced in class. Each exam will cover material from lecture, the course supplement, and the text. It is expected that material studied in laboratory will also be incorporated into your responses on lecture exams. Exams will consist of specific essay questions, short answer, and objective questions. Exam questions may require well-labeled diagrams and will always require detailed and precise responses employing the specialized terminology introduced in the course.

    Additional work sheets and short writing assignments may be given in lecture and lab. Satisfactory completion of these assignments will be required to pass the course but the assignments may not receive a letter grade.

    The Laboratory Course: 

    Twelve lab quizzes will be given.  Each quiz will count 20 points. Your lowest quiz grade (of quizzes you take) will be dropped. You may not drop a zero quiz score received because of an unexcused absence. Thus, your eleven best lab quizzes will total 220 points of the 420 point total for the lab course.  Lab quizzes will consist of practical and short answer questions on the material covered during the previous lab session. This material may include information from lecture, the course supplement, the lab manual, and the text.

    Lab quizzes will begin 2:00 p.m. If you are late without making prior arrangement, you may receive a zero on that week's quiz. No absences from lab are permitted. Any lab work missed because of an excused absence must be made up prior to the next week's lab. Makeups for lab quizzes will only be available under extraordinary circumstances. You must make prior arrangement or notify me within one hour of the scheduled quiz time to be eligible for a makeup quiz. 

    The Lab Midterm Exam and the Lab Final Exam will each count 100 points. The Lab Midterm Exam covers all the lab work up to that point in the semester. The Lab Final Exam covers all the lab work following the Midterm Exam. Lab exams will be practical exams covering structural details and their functions. It may be impossible to make up a missed lab exam. You will also be evaluated on your cooperation and efforts in lab and on the results of your dissections. Pairs or groups of students will work together to prepare specimens.

    Makeup lab exams or quizzes will only be available under extraordinary circumstances.If you miss a quiz or lab exam without prior arrangement or fail to notify me within one hour of the scheduled lab time to arrange a specific time for a make up quiz or exam, you will not be eligible for a makeup quiz or exam and you will receive a zero for the missed quiz or exam. 

    Note the following requirements regarding make up work:

    • If you request a makeup quiz and if you are given permission to take a make up quiz, you must take the make up quiz before the next scheduled lab meeting. 
    • Ordinarily you will also be required to complete the missed lab work before you are considered eligible for a make up quiz. 
    • Ordinarily, a student will be granted no more than one makeup quiz for the course. 
    • Ordinarily, there will be no makeups for quizzes missed because of unexcused absence or lateness (but you will be required to complete any missed lab work). 
    • The University policy on absences will be enforced for lecture and lab. 
    • If you need special consideration, please ask.
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    Keep a Record of Your Exam and Quiz Scores
    Enrolled students can see quiz and exam scores using Moodle
      Lab Quizzes (20 points each)
    • Lab Quiz 1 _____ 
    • Lab Quiz 2 _____ 
    • Lab Quiz 3 _____ 
    • Lab Quiz 4 _____ 
    • Lab Quiz 5 _____ 
    • Lab Quiz 6 _____ 
    • Lab Quiz 7 _____ 
    • Lab Quiz 8 _____ 
    • Lab Quiz 9 _____ 
    • Lab Quiz 10 _____ 
    • Lab Quiz 11 _____ 
    • Lab Quiz 12 _____ 
    • (Drop lowest Quiz)
    Lab Exams (100 points ea.)
    • Lab Midterm Exam _____ 
    • Lab Final Exam _____
    Lecture Exams (100 points each)
    • Lecture Exam 1 _____ 
    • Lecture Exam 2 _____ 
    • Lecture Exam 3 _____ 
    • Lecture Exam 4 _____ 
    • Lecture Exam 5 _____ 
    • Lecture Exam 6 _____ 
  • Lecture Grade

  •             (Exam 1+2+3+4+5+6)/6. 
    • Enrolled students can see quiz and exam scores using Moodle
      Lab Grade = [(11 Best Quiz scores + Lab Midterm + Lab Final)/4.20] 
    Course Resources are available on CBU's biology shared directory  [Restricted to CBU]
    How to Access the Biology shared Directory [Available on CBU campus]
    • Anyone can access the shared volume from any CBU networked Macintosh or PC on campus that can handle file sharing.  This includes campus-wide wireless access for your laptop as well as all the PCs in the Computer Center, the Science Building, Buckman, the Library, and Nolan Hall.  A person could also connect to this from their CBU dorm room. 
      • Map a network drive (Windows)::
      • • Open Windows Explorer (or Computer in Win7)
        • Pull down the Tools menu
        • Select Map network drive
        • At the Map Network Drive dialog box:
          o Drive: (just leave whatever drive letter is shown)
          o Type in  Folder: \\winfile2\biology
          o Click this link:  Connect using a different user name (or connect using different credentials in Win7)
          o Click  Finish
        • At the Connect As… dialog box:
          o type in  User name: cbu\yourusername (this is your cbu email username)
          o Password: your cbu email password (this is your Active Directory password)
          o Click OK
        If you are using a shared computer, don't forget to Disconnect the mapped drive when you are finished.
      • Macintosh: 
        1. Make sure that you are in finder and not in an application. In the toolbar, the top left hand corner should say "Finder" in bold. If it does not, just click on the desktop background.
        2. Four places over to the right from the word "Finder" in the toolbar it should have the word "Go," click on that and scroll down to the bottom and click on "Connect to server."
        3. A pop up box will appear. In that box you should have a space to type in that says "Server Address." In that space type in the address "smb://winfile2.cbu.edu/biology" and hit connect. You should now be on the Biology Shared Directory.
    • What's Available: Open the Resources folder for your Biology course [Comparative Anatomy Resources].  Lecture Resources include PowerPoint lecture slides for each course Unit.  Lab Resources include Digital Images and tutorials sorted by lab topic. (Use ACDSee or another image browser.)
    Galapagos Photo by Anna Ross
    "There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having originally been breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, 
    from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved."
    Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection
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    Dr. Anna E. Ross, Professor of Biology, Christian Brothers University
    Phone: 321-3436
    e-mail: aross@cbu.edu
    A.E.R.'s Home Page  http://facstaff.cbu.edu/aross