Christian Brothers University, Memphis, TN
Biol 217 Section A
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
This page is no longr being updated.
Dr. Ross retired from CBU in May 2019.
~ Fall 2018 ~
Dr. Anna E. Ross
Professor of Biology
A.E.R.'s Home Page
This email will remain active after my retirement
Office hours
Mon., Tues., Wed., Thurs., and Fri. 2:00-4:00. 
Additional times by appointment.
Biol 217 A&P I   |   Biol 218 A&P II  |  Moodle login

  • A&P I Course Information Fall 2018
    • A&P Lecture Sec. A: Mon., Wed., Fri. at 11:00-11:50 in AH 155.
    • Dr. Anna Ross 
    • A&P Laboratory (you must attend the section for which you are officially registered)
      (Dr. Jerad Henson, Lab Instructor) in AH 107
    • Lecture and Lab are corequisites and must be taken concurrently. 
    • Biol 217 Syllabus 2017 (pdf)  2018 Update coming soon.
    • Enrolled students can take the Chapter quizzes and check their quiz and exam scores using Moodle
Students will use both the text and lab manual for the lecture course and will also use both books for the lab course.

Required Text (used both semesters):
Hole 14th ed. Shier, Butler, and Lewis.  2015.  Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology, 14th ed.  McGraw-Hill Book Co.   ISBN 9780078024290. [AmazonAlso acceptable:  Shier, Butler, and Lewis.  2013.  13th ed.  ISBN 9780073378275 [Amazon] Companion website for 13th ed. (Connect)

Required Lab Manual (used both semesters): 
Marieb 12th coverMarieb, Mitchell, and Smith.  2015.  Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual: Cat Version. 12th ed.  ISBN 9780321980878  [Amazon (Spiral bound)  (Optional: with new copies, access to the “Mastering A&P” website with online PhysioEx 9.0 and online PAL Practice Anatomy Lab 3.0.) Also acceptable: 11th ed. ISBN 9780321821843 11th edition with online MasteringA&P Access

Course Supplement (for fall semester):  Ross, Anna E.  2017Biology 217 A&P I Lecture and Lab Course Supplement.  This additional required material can be accessed through \\winfile2\biology and/or Moodle.

Optional:  access to PhysioEx
(through the "Mastering A&P" website) and PhysioEx 9.0 CD.
  If you buy a used lab manual without a valid "Mastering A&P" online access code or a PhysioEx CD, we have CD's you can use in the lab room so you do NOT need to purchase online access to the "Mastering AandP" website.

Optional (used both semesters): Interactive Physiology 10-System CD (ISBN-13: 978-0321506825).  [Used from Amazon about $5.00]  Online access:  (link checked 8 May 2017)

Biol 217L Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Contents: Information for Lecture & Lab Course Topics
(Use these links to jump to the section you need)
  • Accessing CBU's biology shared directory
  • Lab #1 Anatomical Terminology
  • Lab #2 Cells & Mitosis
  • Lab #3 Osmosis, Buffers 
  • Cell Metabolism (No lab, see Text Ch 4)
  • Lab #4 Tissues, Skin
  • Lab #5&6 Skeleton, Joints 
  • Lab #7 Midterm Lab Exam info & Start Muscles 
  • Lab #8&9 Muscle Anatomy
  • Course Resources are available on CBU's biology shared direcctory [Restricted to CBU]
    How to Access the Biology shared Directory [Available on CBU campus and via VPN]
    • Anyone can access the shared volume from any CBU networked Macintosh or PC on campus that can handle file sharing.  This includes campus-wide wireless access for your laptop as well as all the PCs in the Computer Center, the Science Building, Buckman, the Library, and Nolan Hall.  A person could also connect to this from their CBU dorm room. 
      • Map a network drive (Windows)::
        • Open Computer and click map network drive on the menu bar  [If you don't have a shortcut to Computer on the desktop, use the file folder icon to windows explorer.  Then click the help "?" at the upper right of the menu bar and search help for "map network drive".  The help box will display a link and instructions.]
        • At the Map Network Drive dialog box:
          o Drive: (just leave whatever drive letter is shown)
          o Type in  Folder: \\winfile2\biology
          o Click this check box:  Connect using different credentials
          o Click  Finish
        • At the Connect As… dialog box:
          o type in  User name: cbu\yourusername (this is your cbu email username)
          o Password: your cbu email password (this is your Active Directory password)
          o Click OK
        If you are using a shared computer, don't forget to Disconnect the mapped drive when you are finished.
      • Macintosh: 
        1. Make sure that you are in finder and not in an application. In the toolbar, the top left hand corner should say "Finder" in bold. If it does not, just click on the desktop background.
        2. Four places over to the right from the word "Finder" in the toolbar it should have the word "Go," click on that and scroll down to the bottom and click on "Connect to server."
        3. A pop up box will appear. In that box you should have a space to type in that says "Server Address." In that space type in the address "smb://" and hit connect. You should now be on the Biology Shared Directory.
    • What's Available: Open the Resources folder for your Biology course.  Lecture Resources include PowerPoint lecture slides for each course Unit.  Lab Resources include required Digital Images and tutorials sorted by lab topic. (In AH 107, use the ACDSee image browser.)
    • For use off campus, use AH 107 a computer to copy files onto a flash drive.
    • For on-campus use, you do not have to save copies of the images or PowerPoint slides!  They will be on \\winfile2\biology the next time you need them.  (Please do NOT copy course materials into your CBU directory space!)
    Web Resources Covering Several A&P I Course Topics
  • Companion website for Hole's 13th ed. (Connect)  (FREE "Online Learning Center" with practice quizzes, etc.)  Includes answer keys to "Student Study Outline" and much more.
  • Hole's textbook, 12th ed. 
  •  Interactive Image Tutorials
  • A&P Essential Study Partner  (tutorials, etc.) McGraw Hill
  • A&P Study ResourcesAnatomy drill, cadaver practicals (Allen & Harper Lab Manual)
  • A&P Lab resources (Univ. Wisconsin-L) Images, etc.
  • Dr. Arnold's Glossary of Anatomy  anatomical word search
  • Medical Term Pronunciation (Merck)
  • Medical Terminology tutorial (Des Moines Univ.) Free online 
  • Medical Terminology Course (free online) material from U.S. Army manual, Basic Medical Terminology 
  • Maricopa A&P tutorials, practice quizzes, etc.
  • A&P Study Guide (Become a better A&P student: articles, videos, & songs)
  • Cyber Anatomy Tutorials (Univ. of Newcastle)
  • Links to A&P I Tutorials and web resources (Univ. of Houston)
  • A&P Pronunciation Guide  (Palomar College)
  • Human anatomy Plastinated specimens (U. Singapore)
  • Visible Human images, interactive (@ Utah)
  • Models  (interactive labels) Palomar
  • Child Physiology Animations (brain, genetics, heart, skeleton, etc.) Sick Kids U. Toronto
  • Gallery of A&P People Palomar College
  • Human Anatomy Dissector online (cadaver photos)
  • Photos of A&P Models (Palomar College) 
  • Med Students Clinical Resource Centers (Medscape)
  • LUMEN Cross Section Tutorial
  • Anatomy Atlases (formerly Virtual Hospital)
  • Anatomy Word of the Day 
  • Acland Atlas of Human Anatomy Cadaver dissection DVD series (online) Table of Contents
  • "There are two names for everything in anatomy, except... dramatic pause... when there are three or more." Dr. Terry Meehan
    "You cannot be a great anatomist, unless you know 87 different names for the same damn thing!" Dr. Roberta Meehan
    latex glove


    Biol 217 Human Anatomy and Physiology I
    Lecture Unit 1  (Anatomical Terminology and Introduction to Lab Resources)
    • Lab #1:  Marieb Ex. 1, 2  Anatomical Terms, Body Cavities

    Lecture Unit 1 (continued)  Microscopy, Cell Structure, Mitosis
    • Lab #2:  Marieb Ex. 3, 4  Microscopy, Cell Structure, Mitosis 

    • Students must provide their own disposable gloves (latex or nitrile examination gloves) for this lab. 

    A&P Lab Sept 2009

    Lab #3 (Osmosis, pH, Buffers)
    • Marieb Ex. 5, PhysioEx Ex 1  Osmosis, pH, Buffers
    • Students must provide their own disposable gloves (latex or nitrile examination gloves) for this lab. 
    Diffusion and Active Transport Definitions  (modified from Dr. James S. Miller)
    1. Simple diffusion - transport through the lipid phase of the membrane; rate dependent on lipid solubility and concentration gradient; does not require ATP, passive.
    2. Facilitated diffusion - transport through a protein carrier/pore; rate dependent on concentration gradient and carrier/pore efficiency (and of course also the number of proteins carriers); does not require ATP, passive.  (Some authors use "facilitated diffusion" for carrier mediated transport but not for channel mediated transport, as for ions.  However, most prefer to include both under "facilitated" diffusion".)  Note that the rate of facilitated diffusion can be no faster than that of simple diffusion.
    3. Active transport - transport via a protein that is linked to energy use; transportation can be against a concentration gradient and can create a concentration gradient 

    1 & 2 (simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion) can both be referred to as "passive transport" - no energy consumption is directly involved
    2 & 3 (facilitated diffusion and active transport) can both be referred to as "carrier mediated" - a carrier protein/pore is involved, and transport exhibits properties of saturation and competition

    A&P Lab Sept 2009A&P Lab Sept 2009A&P Lab Sept 2009

  • Cell Metabolism: Text Ch. 4 PowerPoint Lecture slides are available on the biology shared directory and Moodle.
  • Q:  Why are fats the primary stores of energy, as opposed to carbohydrates?
    A:  The main advantage is that fats are a lower density energy supply; 5 grams of fat contain the same amount of bond energy as 9 grams of carbohydrates. Fat molecules also don't have the hydration shell that surrounds carbohydrates. -- Ruth Buskirk, University of Texas
    • "...gram for gram, fats provide more energy than carbohydrates."
    • "When you weigh a carbohydrate, more oxygen is included in that weight. When you weigh a fat, you get more carbon atoms per gram and therefore, gram for gram, the fats will give even more energy (over twice as much) than will the carbohydrates. Generally, fats provide about 9 kilocalories per gram and carbohydrates provide about 4 kilocalories per gram. (Using nutritional units, that is 9 Calories/gram for fats and 4 Calories/gram for carbohydrates.)"

    • Source:

    Goblet cell, microvilli

    Compact Bone

    Hyaline Cartilage


    Links to

    Lab #4 Tissues and Skin.
    • Marieb Ex. 6, 7  Tissues, Integument
    • 1. The microscope slides and CD's used in Lab #4 (Tissues and Skin) are available for your use during study lab times (i.e., any time 8:00 am--5:00 pm when there is not another class in AH107).  Lecture slides are available on the shared directory. 
      • You can use the digital images on the shared directory from any computer on campus. 
      • Study Hole Ch. 5 and 6 plus Marieb Exercises and PAL on the Mastering A&P” website . Also, work on the Hole Ch. 5&6 worksheets and read the Lab #4 material in the Supplement
    • 2. Web Sites helpful for Lab #4:
    • Remember, for the lab Quiz and Lab Midterm you need only know the examples listed in the Supplement for Lab#4. 
    • 3. Lab #4 List of Microscope Slides (examples to know, etc.). See Supplement
    • 4. Videotapes/DVD's on tissues and skin:
      • Histology Video Tape Series (DVD & VHS):  Vol. 3 Epithelial Tissues, Vol. 4 Connective Tissue, Vol. 6 Cartilage, Vol. 7 Bone, and Vol. 10 Skin.  (Each tape is ~30 min. long and includes a practice practical at the end.)
    • 5. PowerPoint Lecture slides are on the shared directory and on Moodle (as well as printed in the Supplement)
    • Study the following PowerPoint Slides (the photomicrographs will help you prepare for the lab quiz, lab midterm exam, and Lecture Exam 2) 
      • Ch. 5 part 1 Simple Epithelia 
      • Ch 5 part 2 Stratified Epithelia and Glandular Epithelium 
      • Ch 5 part 3 Connective Tissue Proper 
      • Ch 5 part 4 Special C.T., Muscle, and Nervous Tissue 
      • Ch 6 Integumentary System
    • 6. What's on the Lab quiz? 
      • Digital images where I'll ask "Name the Tissue" and/or "Identify the Source" [3-4 points]
      • (Know the examples listed in the Supplement.)
      • Short answer questions where I'll name the location and you name the tissue and/or
      • I name the tissue and you name one or more locations where it is found. [approx. 1/2 the quiz] 
        (Know the examples listed in the Supplement.)
      • Explain, define and use terms for classifying tissues (I'll ask about one or more specific
      • tissue examples and/or terms) [Approx. 3 points] 
      • Don't worry that I've "left out" some of the details on skin: (nearly)
      • ALL the anatomical wonders of skin WILL be included on the Lab Midterm!

    Biol 217 Lab 28 Sept. 2005

    Biol 217 Lab 28 Sept. 2005

    Biol 217 Lab 28 Sept. 2005

    Biol 217 Lab 28 Sept. 2005

    Biol 217 Lab 28 Sept. 2005

    Biol 217 Lab 28 Sept. 2005

    Biol 217 Lab 28 Sept. 2005



    Labs #5 and #6 (Skeleton and Joints).
    • Lab 5:  Marieb Ex. 8, 9  Bone and Skeleton:  Skull
    • Lab 6:  Marieb Ex. 9, 10, 11  Skeleton and Joints

    • Hole Chapters 7 & 8. 
    • Lab #5 deals with the skeletal system, especially the skull.  (Yes, ALL the little holes, nooks, crannies, and things you never realized actually HAVE names.) 
      • Quiz # 5 will cover the skull
      • (ID bones, parts of bones, sutures, and foramina from diagrams, photos, and/or real skulls or model skulls).

    Sex Characteristics of the Skull

    Feature Male Female
    A. supraorbital ridge prominent slender
    B. occipital protuberance prominent slender
    C. mastoid process long, broad short
    D. mandible square V-shaped
    • The study of the skeletal system and joints continues in Lab #6. 
      • For joints, the emphasis is on the knee joint in preparation for the midterm exam.
    • See Supplement and the PowerPoint slides for Hole Chapters 7 and 8. 
    • Materials available for study in AH107:
      • Human bones, medical-grade plastic casts of human bones (please handle with care;  use only the designated "safe" pointers and tools)
      • Dissectible skull; Disarticulated skull bones (please keep each bone in it's labeled plastic bag)
      • Fetal skull and medical-grade plastic cast of fetal skull
      • X-rays
      • Models of knee joint (lab 6)
      • Videotapes/DVDs: 
    Height Estimation Using the Femur
    Male:  (2.32 x length of the femur in cm.) + 65.53 +/- 3.94
    Female: (2.47 x length of the femur in cm.) + 54.10 +/- 3.72
    Biol 217 Lab 28 Sept. 2005
    • Just for fun:
    • Addictive... the skeleton responds to your cursor ... notice, however, that this "puppet" is impossibly limber.
    Bones don’t lie. John Hawks of the University of Wisconsin at Madison likes evidence he can put his hands on, so he takes me on a tour of the university’s bone laboratory. There, the energetic 36-year-old anthropologist unlocks a glass case and begins arranging human skulls and other skeletal artifacts—some genuine fossils, others high-quality reproductions—on a counter according to their age. Gesturing toward these relics, which span the past 35,000 years, Hawks says, “You don’t have to look hard to see that teeth are getting smaller, skull size is shrinking, stature is getting smaller.”

    These overriding trends are similar in many parts of the world, but other changes, especially over the past 10,000 years, are distinct to specific ethnic groups. “These variations are well known to forensic anthropologists,” Hawks says as he points them out: In Europeans, the cheekbones slant backward, the eye sockets are shaped like aviator glasses, and the nose bridge is high. Asians have cheekbones facing more forward, very round orbits, and a very low nose bridge. Australians have thicker skulls and the biggest teeth, on average, of any population today. “It beats me how leading biologists could look at the fossil record and conclude that human evolution came to a standstill 50,000 years ago,” Hawks says.
    Source:  Discover "They don't make Homo sapiens like they used to" online 9 Feb. 2009

    Links to
    A&P Sites.

    Lab 7: Midterm Lab Exam & Begin Study of Human Muscles

    BIOL 217 A&P Lab Midterm Exam

    • Covers all topics from the first six lab sessions. 
    • Includes handouts, Marieb lab manual, Supplement, digital images, and textbook/lecture slide information on the lab topics. 
    • 100 points (1/3 of the lab course grade) 
    • Topics 
      • Anatomical terms, membranes, body cavities [~12 pts.] 
      • Microscopy, cell structure, mitosis [~10 pts.] 
      • Osmosis, pH, buffers [~14 pts.]  ** Review this!
      • Tissues [~16 pts.] 
      • Integument [~10 pts.] 
      • Skull [~16 pts.] 
      • Skeleton, joints (knee joint) [~26 pts.] 
    • Format: Mostly practical; all short answer (ID the structure, etc.) 
      • Diagrams 
      • Anatomical Models 
      • Microscope slides 
      • Digital images (from the shared directory and lecture slides
      • Skull (adult and fetal) 
      • Bones (individual) 
      • Written questions (short answer/objective) 

    Labs 7, 8, & 9: Muscle Anatomy
    • (Homework: human muscles worksheets and Marieb Review Sheet)
    • Marieb Ex. 13, 12  Human Muscle Anatomy (Hole Ch. 9 and Ch. 9 slides)
    • The study of muscles begins in Lab #7, following the Lab Midterm Exam. 

    • Web Sites (more are listed below): 
    • Materials  for Labs 7, 8, and 9: (Handouts &/or in Supplement
      • List of Human muscles to know for lecture and lab: in Supplement
      • Worksheet for Hole Chapter 9: Muscular System. [Also for Lab #10-Muscle Physiology] Handout (also on shared directory)
      • Human Muscles Lab Worksheet (diagrams to label) in Supplement
      • Human Musculature DVD (Benjamin/Cummings 25 min.).  Fill in the worksheet: (list of muscles identified on the DVD) in Supplement.
      • Human Muscles of the Upper Extremity/Muscles of the Lower Extremity (Worksheet to complete using the models.) in Supplement
      • Interactive Physiology (CD in lab): Muscular System [Also for Lecture Exam #3 preparation and Lab #10-Muscle Physiology] (Interactive Physiology worksheets are on the shared directory).
  • Building Muscles in Clay 
  • Students provide their own disposable gloves (latex or nitrile examination gloves) for this lab. 
    • You will learn the muscles by hands-on activity.  Following the photographs provided, you will place single strings of clay, one at a time, onto the bones of a human plastic skeleton to make the assigned individual muscles. Building a muscle takes about 2 minutes.  By examining where the muscles connect to the bone (the origins and insertions), you will be able to derive what the muscle actually does (action). 
    • What you need to build muscle in clay:
    • One Tiny Tim Skeleton, one bar of plasticine clay, and some paper to work on. Your team will also have a clay extruder to make clay "strings.”
    • How to build a muscle with clay:
    • Open one of the web pages showing the muscle that you would like to build. (Or consult your text and lab manual.) Note the origin and insertion. Place one end of a string of clay at the origin, and run it to the insertion. The clay may not stick well to a new skeleton. Rubbing a little clay onto the bones and wiping it off or roughing it up with sandpaperor abraisive cleanser may help the clay stick better.  Add clay strings until the shape of the muscle is filled out.
    • Lab Quiz # 6 HUMAN MUSCLES:  Names and actions for superficial muscles of the neck, chest, trunk, and shoulder.  Superficial muscles of the forelimb; superficial and deep muscles of the abdomen, hip, and leg.  The quiz will require recall memory.  (Name the muscles indicated on diagrams or models.) Quiz # 6 will be given at the start of Lab 9.
    • Lab Quiz # 7 HUMAN MUSCLES.  Muscles to ID will be selected from all the human muscles on the list.

    • More DVD's (Human Muscles): 

    • Students may also use the DVD's in AH107 during Study Lab times. 
      • Human Muscles (Benjamin/Cummings 25 min.). Fill in the worksheet. [We'll view this as a group during lab #7]
      • Human Muscles (1 hr.) [View as you are working during lab #8]
      • Cadaver Atlas video series.  Muscles of the upper extremity, Muscles of the lower extremity, Muscles of trunk, etc. 
    • Computer Resources: (CD's etc.)
    • Students may also use these materials in AH107 during Study Lab times.

    Human Hamstring Muscles:  Here's a suggestion on how to remember the relative positions of these three muscles... The "Semi's" go together:  Semitendinosus has a long tendon and Semimembranosus is more medial.  The Biceps femoris is "by" itself on the lateral aspect of the thigh.  (Source:  Krieger, Paul.  20004.  Using creative analogies to teach A&P.  HAPS Educator, Fall 2004: p. 27.)
  • PowerPoint lecture slides are available on the shared directory and on Moodle.
  • "Rigor mortis seems to be due to the final absolute depletion of ATP in the muscles, which then stops the cycle of actin-myosin activity at the point at which new ATP would be used:  namely, the detachment of myosin from actin.  This leaves all the myosin crossbridges in a permanent state of attachment to actin, with no possibility of relative movement between any of the thick and thin filaments.  With all the sliding filaments 'frozen up,' the muscle becomes quite rigid.  The subsequent loss of Rigor Mortis is then due to the breakdown of the muscle tissue that follows."  Dr. Steven N. Trautwein
    Also see:  Medico-legal problems of establishing the time of death:
    "... corpses can usually be divided into those, still warm, in which no rigor is present, indicating death within about the previous three hours. Those in which rigor is progressing, where death probably occurred between 2 and 9 hours previously; and those in which rigor is fully established, showing that death took place more than 9 hours previously." "If full rigor is present, then one might assume that this is about the second day following death, depending upon the environmental conditions." 
    Biol 217 Lab 26 Oct. 2005Biol 217 Lab 26 Oct. 2005Biol 217 Lab 26 Oct. 2005


    Skeletal Muscle Tissue Fiber

    Biol 217 Lab 26 Oct 2005

    Lab 10: Muscle Physiology 
    • Marieb Ex. 12, 14  Muscle Physiology: Biopac and PhysioEx
    Lactic Acid Helps Muscles  [From Science Roundup by AAAS] 

    "We've all felt it at some point -- the ache and burn of muscle fatigue after a long run or intense workout. Conventional wisdom holds that lactic acid -- generated when physical exertion deprives our muscles of oxygen and they switch from aerobic to anaerobic means to create energy -- is to blame for the pain. Now, a report in the 20 Aug 2004 Science shows that, on the contrary, accumulation of lactic acid actually helps to maintain muscle function. Using a preparation of skinned rat skeletal muscle fibers, Pedersen et al. demonstrated that the increased acidity associated with lactic acid production decreases the activity of chloride ion channels and helps muscles maintain their electrical excitability and ability to contract. These chloride channels normally help maintain the balance of electrical signals (which also involves sodium and potassium ions) that prevents spontaneous contractions in rested muscles. An accompanying Perspective by D. Allen and H. Westerblad highlighted the report and reviewed the history of lactic acid in muscle fatigue research."

    Myofibrils are bigger than myofilaments.
    "Sliding filament" mechanism involves thin (mostly actin) and thick (myosin) myofilaments.
    Transverse Banding in muscle fibers:  Memory help
    A / overlap  [A = thick (myosin) myofilaments + overlap]
    I / thin  [I = thin (mostly actin) myofilaments, no overlap]
  • Skeletal Muscle:  Triad (t-tubule between 2 terminal cisternae) at A-I junction
    • Cardic Muscle:  Diad with t-tubule at Z line (no large terminal cisternae)
    A skeletal muscle fiber can be up to 30 cm long and 100 um or more wide!

    Lab 11: Nervous Tissue and Nerve Function
    • Marieb Ex. 15, 19, 20, 21  N.S. Histology,  Spinal Cord, Reflexes and Reaction time (Biopac Lesson 11).
    • DVD's: Histology Video Series, vol. 9:  Nervous Tissue (DVD);  Brain and Nervous System (Spektrum Videothek) 
    • References: Hole, Nervous System chapters and powerpoint lecture slides.
    Neural Tissue
    • Digital images on the shared directory (Carolina Slide Sets plus other images):
    • Neurons, Neuroglia, Spinal cord, Spinal ganglion, Cerebrum, Cerebellum.
    • PowerPoint Slides sets: Nervous System Histology 
    • PAL on the Mastering A&P” website
  • Microscope Slides (slide boxes H-# listed in Supplement ) 
  • Models: Spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion and spinal nerve. Neuron, synapse, etc.   Torso model
  • Computer Resources 
  • Reading: Cranial Nerve Assessment  (Available on the shared directory, from the journal, RN). 
  • Reflex experiments and Reaction Time (as listed in Supplement; also see below) 
  • Patellar Reflex demonstration
  • Supplement:  Human Reflexes List.  Trace the pathways of the neural input and output.
  • BIOPAC: Lesson 11 (Reaction Time I)  (Procedure in Marieb)
  • Anatomy – Trace the CNS pathway used in Biopac Lesson 11.  FROM Auditory stimulus (CN VIII) TO Motor output (PNS at Brachial plexus to ulnar nerve, to median nerve to move fingers).  List/show the pathway in the CNS.  [See text Ch. 11.]
    • Reflexes:  The general advice Dr. Lee Weller gives to students who are just learning to demonstrate stretch reflexes is that these are best elicited when:
    •     1.  the muscle being tested is relaxed
          2.  the muscle being tested is slightly stretched
          3.  the stimulus is brief and 'sharp'
    • Tips on Testing Reflexes (from Marc H. Walters, M.D.):
      • Clinicians usually call these stretch reflexes the Deep Tendon Reflexes.  It can help elicit the reflexes in the arms if you ask the subjects to clench their teeth.  Hold the hammer loosely, letting the hammer swing (rather than holding tight and making your wrist action do the work).
      • For the biceps jerk:  Have the subject rest their arm in their lap with their elbow flexed; grasp their elbow with your thumb directly on their biceps tendon, and hit your thumb.  (Instead of my thumb, I often do it by placing my 2nd and 3rd fingers over the tendon). You often feel their tendon jerk, and may not see much elbow flexion.
      • For the triceps jerk:  Hold the subject's arm out to their side by supporting their brachium; let their forearm dangle down.  The elbow should be relaxed, at 90 degrees.  (Position the arm so  the triceps tendon is facing straight up).  Tap on the tendon directly.  To double-check that the subject is relaxed, let go of their arm:  if they are relaxed, it will drop to their side.  If they are tense, they'll continue to hold their arm out.
      • For the brachioradialis: Hold the subject's arm out in front of them by hanging onto their thumb only... the rest of their arm should hang relaxed.  You should really feel the weight of their arm if they are relaxed.  Tap your hammer onto the radial side of the forearm, which should be pointing straight up.  (You don't have to be very precise with your aim).  (My physical diagnosis book says to grab the patient's wrist instead of their thumb; they say to support the arm in partial pronation).  You see elbow flexion and supination.
      • With reflexes, emphasize the importance of checking for symmetry:  a herniated disc, etc. will often diminish the strength on one side and not the other. 
      • Use this grading scale:
      • 0 = Absent
        1 = Hypoactive
        2 = Normal (accept a wide range for this)
        3 = Hyperactive
        4 = Clonus (rhythmic contractions) -- you see these in upper motor neuron lesions such as in spinal cord injury patients -- when you test the reflex arcs whose integration centers are below the level of the injury.  The injury cuts the descending, inhibitory fibers that normally keep our reflexes in check.  That's the whole thing behind spastic paralysis... as opposed to flaccid paralysis, which is a lower motor neuron problem.
      • Example:  A C5 cord lesion would destroy the integration center for biceps jerk, but you'd see clonus in the knee and ankle jerks.
  • Web sites 
    • For Lab Quiz #9
      • Know anatomical components of a reflex arc (at the spinal cord level). Be able to interpret diagrams.
      • Know structure (morphology), function, and location of representative cells of nervous tissue.

    PowerPoint Lecture slides are available on the shared directory
    • Ch 10 Nervous Sys: Struct & Funct; NS Histology
    • Ch 11 Nervous Sys: Divisions of NS
    Blood Brain Barrier
    • 1) The BBB develops early in the embryo through an interaction between glial astrocytes and capillary endothelial cells
    • 2) The BBB is created largely by the elaborate tight junctions between the capillary endothelial cells; which form continuous-type capillaries within the brain.
      • 2a) Research involving TEM demonstrates these tight junctions between the endothelial cells of the capillaries. TEM studies also demonstrate that these tight junctions are more like the tight junctions seen between epithelial cells as compared to those of endothelial cells elsewhere in the cardiovascular system.
    • 3) TEM studies also demonstrate an elaborate interaction and close association between the end-foot processes of astrocytesand the basal lamina of the capillary endothelial cells, thereby adding to the effectiveness of the BBB.
      • 3a) Research also demonstrates that the normal functioning of the tight junctions of the endothelial cells depends on the normal functioning of the astrocytes. In several brain diseases the BBB loses its effectiveness. Examination of brain tissue in these instances reveals loss of the tight junctions in the endothelial cells as well as alterations in the morphology of the astrocytes.
    • 4) Other research findings indicate that the endothelial cells participating in the BBB have a significantly smaller number of pinocytotic vesicles than seen in other endothelial cells elsewhere in the CV system.
    So, in summary, the BBB is formed by (a) the tight junctions of the endothelial cells of the blood vessels within the brain; (b) the interaction between the astrocytic end-foot processes; (c) the interaction between the astrocytes and the endothelial cells; and (d) the decreased number of pinocytic vesicles within the endothelial cells.
    From Robert Tallitsch, Ph.D. Augustana College, IN


    Lab 12: Brain Anatomy and EEG
    • For Lab Quiz #10: 
      • Human brain diagrams to label (possible quiz material = sagittal sec., frontal sec., and ventral, lateral, and dorsal surface views); 
      • Sheep brain diagram to label including cranial nerves [name and number] (possible quiz material = surface views, sagittal sec., frontal sec.) 
    • The Cerebellum (From Dr. Ken Saladin):

    • Proportion of neurons in cerebellum100 billion according to “The cerebellum: the brain’s engine of agility,” Science 281:1588-90, 11 Sep 1998.  Afifi & Bergman, p. 311, say the cerebellum contains over 50% of all neurons of the brain. A. Parent, Carpenter’s Human Neuroanatomy, 9/e, says cerebellum is 10% of brain mass but contains almost 50% of its neurons.
      Cerebellum, functions. There is evidence that the cerebellum is involved in more than motor control; may also be involved in cognition. Patients with cerebellar lesions perform poorly on nonmotor tasks, and PET scans show increased cerebellar activity in association with analysis of sensory input, telling time, and solving spatial puzzles.  If a person is given a noun and asked to think of a related verb, such as eat for apple, the cerebellum shows higher activity than if the person is just told to repeat apple.  Solving a pegboard puzzle causes much more cerebellar activity than control tasks such as moving pegs randomly around on the same puzzle board.  Rubbing sandpaper over a subject’s fingers activates the cerebellum to a degree, but not as much as when the subject is asked to rate the relative coarseness of 2 different sandpapers.  Cerebellar lesions interfere with ability to judge time elapsed between 2 tones.  Very controversial; some neurobiologists still do not believe it is involved in any more than motor coordination.  Science 272:482-483, 26 April 1996; Afifi & Bergman, pp. 326-327. Role in making short-term predictions about movement, such as anticipating where a tennis ball will be in the next second, anticipating the position of prey, predicting how much the eyes must move to remain fixed on a point in response to a head movement: Science 282:224-225, 9 October 1998.
    A Mnemonic for Cranial Nerves:
    "OLd OPie OCcasionally TRies TRIGonometry, And Feels VEry GLOomy, VAGue, And HYPOactive" 
    (for most cranial nerves, this gives two to four of the initial letters, in caps). 
    The mnemonic was invented by a student of Dr. Saladin, Marti Haykin, who subsequently went to medical school and has become, of all things, a neurologist in Pittsburgh.

    Lab 13: Eye and Ear
    • Marieb Ex. 23, 24 Eye and Ex. 25 Ear (Ex. 22, 26 Other Senses).
    • Students must provide their own disposable gloves (latex or nitrile examination gloves) for this lab. 
    • Hole (text) chapter 12. 
    • Readings: 
      • How the Human Eye Focuses. Scientific American Article (in file box): 
      • Seeing, Hearing, and Smelling.   Report from Howard Hughes Medical Institiute. Excellent web site. (Adobe Acrobat file on the shared directory) 
    • DVDs:
    • The Operation: Corneal Transplant Surgery (Available in AH107)
  • EYE: Lab Activities: 
    • Cow eyes to dissect
    • Histology of the Eye 
      • Microscope slides 
        • H-3 Anterior eye and Retina.
        • retina (identify the layers), cornea, ciliary apparatus, lens 
        • Powerpoint Tutorial on the shared directory
      • Digital images (Benson 80-slide set and N.S. carousel, etc.)
      • PALon the Mastering A&P” website
      • Web sites for Histology (see below)
      • CD-ROM's for Histology: Microscopic Anatomy 
    • Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye
      • Computer Resources 
        • Digital Images on the shared directory
        • ADAM Practice Practical 
        • Human Anatomy (Gold Star brand): Cadaver dissection CD 
        • Nervous System (Interactive Physiology) CD 
        • Web sites (see below): Eye dissection; etc. 
      • Functional eye model with flexible lens 
      • Anatomical Eye models with key 
      • Eye diagrams (two charts) 
    • Eye tests and demonstrations to do (as described in Marieb): 
      • Purkinje tree (penlight) 
      • Blind spot (index card with + and l) 
      • Near point (index card with pin holes, ruler) 
      • Visual acuity (eye chart) 
      • Astigmatism (chart) 
      • Color blindness (test books) 
      • Pupillary reflexes (pen light) 
      • Ophthalmoscopes 
        • Desk study of the ophthalmoscope (define diopter) 
        • Examination of retina (use "green spot" light of ophthalmoscope) 
        • Locate optic disc; do not attempt to locate fovea 
    • Web Sites (Eye) 
    • Additional histology of sensory structures: 
    • For Lab Quiz #11: 
      • Diagram(s) of eye to label 
      • Short answer, fill-in, identifying functions of structures of the eye.
    Iris. Iris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow, gives her name to the colored portion of the eye called the iris and the iris flower, which has varieties in all the colors of the rainbow. [Source:]
    A&P I Dec 2009
    Ear, Hearing and Balance A&P I Dec 2009A&P I Dec 2009
    A&P I Dec 2009

    Links to
    Lab 14: Endocrine Glands

    Marieb Ex. 27  Endocrine Glands (Ex. 28 in part).  Histology and Function

    Also text Chapter 13.

    Who named it?
    • Paul Langerhans (1847-1888)
    • "Langerhans’ main scientific achievements consist in his studies of human and animal  microscopical anatomy. In this field he was among the first successful investigators to explore the new area of research with novel methods and staining techniques."
    • "...Paul Langerhans discovered the islets while in the context of a medical histology course he was taking. He refused to accept the glib explanation of the peculiar appearance of cells in a pancreatic section as a ‘staining artifact’ by his august Herr Professor. Systematic comparative anatomy of many animals by Langerhans established the biological significance of the islets long before the notion of endocrine secretion was in hand."  Alan Magid, Ph.D.
    • "Paul Langerhans (1847-1888) published his doctoral thesis in 1869 describing a subset of pancreatic cells, now named the islands or islets of Langerhans.  Islets of Langerhans contain insulin producing beta cells which are of fundamental importance to diabetes research today. Also while still a medical student working in Virchow's laboratory in Berlin, in 1868 he published a description of structures in human skin, now called Langerhans' granular layer and Langerhans' stellate corpuscles. The former of these structures contains the 'Langerhans' cells' now found to be antigen presenting cells in tumor immunology."
    Biol 217 Lab Final
    • Date: During Exam Week 
    • Format: (100 points plus approx. 5 Bonus Points)
    • Objective format including diagrams to label, graphs to label, and matching.
    • Topics & Approximate Emphasis 
      • Human muscles (~25%) 
      • Muscle physiology (~10-15%) 
      • CNS Anatomy, human (~25%) 
      • NS Function, reflexes (~15%) 
      • Sense organs (~10%) 
      • Endocrine anatomy and function (~15-20%) 
  • Biol 217 Lecture Final
  • Date:  (during final exam week).
  • Format: See information in Course Supplement.
  • "There are two names for everything in anatomy, except.... when there are three or more." Dr. Meehan
    "You cannot be a great anatomist, unless you know 87 different names for the same damn thing!"
    Biol 217L Human Anatomy and Physiology I Lab

    Course Objectives: The Biol 217-218 two semester course sequence offers a comprehensive study of human anatomy and physiology at the cell, tissue, and organ system levels of organization. The first semester topics include cells, cell metabolism, tissues, and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, sensory, and endocrine systems. Dissection of preserved mammalian specimens is required.

    If you take A&P, you need to take both semesters. The Biol 217-218 sequence is a Group I Biology Elective designed for pre-nursing, pre-physical therapy, pre-pharmacy, pre-optometry, and other pre-health students as well as students preparing for secondary school teaching in biology. Students who want the strongest preparation for medical school, dental school, or other graduate school programs in biology should select upper division biology courses including BIOL 312 (Human Physiology) instead of the Biol 217-218 sequence. Consult your academic advisor to be certain that Biol 217-218 is the best course selection for you. 

    Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and 112 (Principles of Biology I and II and their laboratory courses) and Chem 113 (Principles of Chemistry I and lab). Students who have not achieved grades of "C" or better in each of the prerequisite courses are advised to repeat the necessary courses before attempting further coursework in biology.  BIOL 217, BIOL 217L and Chem 113 and Lab are prerequisites for BIOL 218 and BIOL 218L (offered Spring semester). 

  •  Biol 217 Syllabus 2017 (pdf) 
  • Class Photos 2005   Class Photos ~ Fall 2000  (more recent photos are on the shared directory)
  • Fall 2017 Study Lab Schedule for Room AH107
    Study Lab Schedule for Room AH107.
    Dr. Ross's schedule and office hours for Fall 2017.
    CBU Students:  Send your course-related questions via email!
      email: What questions would you like to see discussed here?
    Dr. Ross's Home Page Comments & Questions: Please contact Dr. Anna E. Ross