Biol 218 -- Human Anatomy and Physiology II and Lab
Spring 2017 -- Course Home Page
This page is no longer being updated.
Dr. Ross retired from CBU in May 2109.

A&P II Course Information -- Spring 2017
  • Syllabus for Spring 2018 A&P II lecture & lab course (pdf to download) 
  • A&P Lecture M, W, F at 11:00-11:55 a.m. in CW 105.  Dr. Anna Ross
  • A&P Laboratory  AH 107
  • Wednesday 2:00–4:50 pm AH 107 (Dr. Henson)
  • Thursday 2:00–4:50 pm AH 107 (Dr. Henson) 
  • Friday 2:00–4:50 pm AH 107 (Dr. Henson)
  • A&P Course Resources are available to CBU students on the biology shared directory.
  • Enrolled students can see quiz and exam scores using Moodle
  • Dr. Anna E. Ross, Professor Emerita of Biology. (former A&P course director)
  • Dr. Ross's Home Page: 
  •   email:
  • Spring Semester Office hours: Mon., Wed., Thurs., & Fri. 2:00–4:30.
  •             Additional times by appointment (use the posted schedule).
    Biol 217 A&P I  |  Biol 218 A&P II  |     Moodle login
    A&P II Links and information for Lecture & Lab Topics
    Contents Arranged By Lab Session
    Web resources covering several topics
    Biol 218/L 2018 Syllabus
    Lecture Unit 1:
         Lab 1. Blood and Hematology
         Lab 2. Hematology and Blood Pressure
         Lab 3. Cardiac Anatomy and Function
         Lab 4. Vascular Anatomy, part 1
    Lecture Units 1 & 2:
         Lab 5. Vascular Anatomy, Lymphatic Sys.
    Lecture Unit 2:
         Lab 6. Digestive System
         Lab 7. Hydrolysis
    Lab 8. Midterm Lab Exam
    Lecture Unit 3:
         Lab 9. Respiratory System
         Lab 10. Respiratory Function
         Lab 11. Anatomy of the Urinary System
    Lecture Units 3 & 4:
         Lab 12. Urine Composition and Tests
    Lecture Unit 4:
         Lab 13. Reproductive Anatomy
    Lecture Unit 5:
         Lab 14. Human Development
        Genetics Examples (Lecture Unit 5)
    AH107 Spring 2017 Schedule
    How to access the shared directory (\\winfile2\biology)
    Lecture slides, lab images, and other course resources are available to CBU students on \\winfile2\biology.

             Hole 14th ed.   

    Marieb 12th cover

    VanDeGraaff 8th ed. 
    Students will use both the text and lab manual for the lecture course and will also use both books for the lab course.

    Required Text (used both semesters):
     Shier, Butler, and Lewis.  2015.  Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology, 14th ed.  McGraw-Hill Book Co.   ISBN 9780078024290 Also acceptable:  Shier, Butler, and Lewis.  2013.  12th ed.  ISBN 9780073378275 [Amazon] Companion website for 13th ed. (Connect)

    Required Lab Manual (used both semesters): 

    Marieb, Mitchell, and Smith.  2015.  Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual: Cat Version. 12th ed.  ISBN 9780321980878   (Spiral bound)  (Optional: with new copies, access to the “Mastering A&P” website with online PhysioEx 9.0 and online PAL Practice Anatomy Lab 3.0.) Also acceptable: 11th ed. ISBN 9780321821843 11th edition with online MasteringA&P Access

    Optional:  access to PhysioEx (through the "Mastering A&P" website) or a PhysioEx 9.0 CD.  If you buy a used lab manual without a valid "Mastering A&P" online access code or a PhysioEx CD, we have CD's you can use in the lab room so you do NOT need to purchase online access to the "Mastering AandP" website or purchase a PhysioEx 9.0 CD.

    Recommended (used both semesters): Interactive Physiology 10-System CD (ISBN-13: 978-0321506825).  [Used from Amazon about $5.00]  [Access most of this material here IPWeb (requires Adobe Flash, so use  IE browser) ]

    Optional (recommended) (used both semesters) Morton, David A. 2016. Van De Graaff's Photographic Atlas for the Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory, 8th ed. Loose Leaf  ISBN-13: 978-1617312779 [Amazon]    Earlier editions are also acceptable

    Required Supplement (for spring semester):  Ross, Anna E.  2017Biology 218 A&P II Lecture and Lab Course Supplement.  Purchase from CBU Print Shop in St. Joseph Hall

  • Students must provide their own disposable gloves (latex or nitrile examination gloves)

  • Web Resources Covering Several A&P II Course Topics
  • View streaming videos of surgical procedures (Discovery Health)
  • Human anatomy Plastinated specimens
  • (U. Singapore) Specimen Group 2
  • Human Anatomy Dissector online (cadaver photos)
  • Dr. Jensen's Practice Lab Exams
  • Physiology Tutorials from Dr. Browne at Alverno
  • RN Magazine Web Site
  • Medicine for the Public NIH Lecture Series
  • Life Sciences Dictionary
  • Dictionary of medical eponyms (with many biographies)
  • Anatomy Atlases  (formerly Virtual Hospital)
  • Hardin MD U Iowa (metadirectory of info on diseases)
  • Models of Human Anatomy:  Photos with pop-up labels
  • Medical Encyclopedia (MSN, WebMD)
  • MedLine Plus  (health information from NIH)
  • Health and Disease Information from the Mayo Clinic
  • Links to tutorials and other web resources for A&P II topics (Univ. of Houston)
  • On line practice A&P MC quizzes
  • A&P Pronunciation Guide  (Palomar College)
  • Basic Cross-Sectional Anatomy and Imaging of
  • the Abdomen & Thorax  (U. of Auckland)
  • Gross Anatomy images, labeled (U. Arkansas)
  • Merck Source: Health info. plus ADAM encyclopedia,
  • Dorland's medical dictionary, Merck Manual.
  • Anatomy Games (U. Minnesota)
  • Gray's Anatomy (1918) online
  • Anatomy drill and practice (Wiley) Good ch. by ch. resource for the entire course.
  • Virtual Microscope for Anatomy (Indiana)
  • web-HUMAN (physiology simulation)
  • "There are two names for everything in anatomy, except... dramatic pause... when there are three or more." Dr. Terry Meehan
    "You cannot be a great anatomist, unless you know 87 different names for the same damn thing!" Dr. Roberta Meehan

    A&P II Laboratory Schedule -- Spring 2017

    Lab #
    Weekly Laboratory   (Wed. or Thurs. in AH 107)
    Marieb (12th ed.) Exercise and other materials
    Text (Hole) Topic 
    and Chapter
    Blood and Hematology.  Marieb Ex. 29
    DVD and hands-on. Differential WBC Count: "Never Let Mom (or men) Eat Beans" 
    and, for the approximate relative abundance, "60, 30, 6, 3, 1." 
        Neutrophils >60% 
        Lymphocytes 30% 
        Monocytes 6% 
        Eosinophils 3% 
        Basophils <1%
    Blood -- 14

    Hematology and Blood PressureMarieb Ex. 29, 33 , Physio-Ex  Blood tests continued, plus blood pressure exercises. 
  • LAB QUIZ 1 on last week's lab will be administered at the start of lab.
  • Blood -- 14


    ECG in A&P Lab 2006

    ECG in A&P Lab 2006

    CPR for A&P (March 2006)

    Cardiac Anatomy and FunctionMarieb Ex 30, 31, 33.  Dissection, DVD, Biopac
  • LAB QUIZ 2 on last week's lab will be administered at the start of lab.
  • CPR class for Human A&P students (2006)Biol 218 CPR class Feb 2009
    "Learn by Heart."   The ancient Greeks believed that the heart, the most noticeable internal organ, was the seat of intelligence and memory as well as emotion.  This belief was passed on down the ages and became the basis for the English expression "learn by heart," which is used by Chaucer (1374) and must have been proverbial long before that.  "To record" reminds again of this ancient belief in the heart as the seat of the mind.  When writing wasn't a simple act, things had to be memorized; thus we have the word record, formed from the Latin re, "again," and cor, "heart," which means exactly the same as to learn by heart. [Source:]
    ECG in A&P Lab Spring 2006Biol 218 CPR class Feb 2009
    System -- 15
    Vascular Anatomy, Lymphatic Sys. (1st session)  
    Marieb Ex 32, Diss Ex 4, Ex 35.  Dissection, DVD's 

  • LAB QUIZ 3 on the previous lab will be administered at the start of lab. 
  • How did it get that name?
    Carotid Artery.  The ancients knew that if you pressed the arteries leading to the head long enough, unconsciousness would result.  Thus they named these arteries karotides, from the Greek karoun, to stupefy. Karotide later became carotid in English.  (Source:
    System -- 15

    System -- 16

    Vascular Anatomy, Lymphatic Sys. (2nd session) 
    Marieb Ex 32, Diss Ex 4, Ex 35.  Dissection, DVD's

  • LAB QUIZ 4 on the previous lab will be administered at the start of lab. 
  • Are Anatomical Models Always Accurate?
    I would never assume that the Somso and other anatomical models are correct. For example -- unless I am misinterpreting something -- all of my torso models (the typical 3/4- or full-scale model from head to pelvis, with removal thoracic and abdominal viscera) show the jugular veins incorrectly. They show two large veins converging near the angle of the mandible, as if the internal and external jugulars anastomose there in parallel to the branching of the internal and external carotids. Maybe I'm just stupidly overlooking something obvious, but it looks to me like the model designer falsely assumed that the jugular veins would follow the same pattern as the carotid arteries. I do have a Somso head model that has the jugulars correct and shows them much differently than the torso models do. Things like this are enough to shake one's confidence in anatomical models and never to take them as unquestionably authoritative.  -- Dr. Ken Saladin, June 2005.
    System -- 15

    System -- 16

    Digestive SystemMarieb Ex 38, Diss Ex 7. 
    DVD, dissection, histology

  • LAB QUIZ 5  on the previous lab will be administered at the start of lab. 
  •  Liver Trivia (from
    • The average human liver is more than five times the weight of the human heart. The liver stretches across almost the width of the body, occupying a space about the size of a football. It weighs more than 3 pounds. 
    • If 80 percent of your liver were to be removed, the remaining part would continue to function. Within a few months, the liver would have reconstituted itself to its original size. 
    One easy way to remember which abdominopelvic organs are retroperitoneal is to use a mnemonic such as SAD PUCKER:

    S = Suprarenal (adrenal) glands
    A = Aorta/Inferior Vena Cava
    D = Duodenum (second and third segments)

    P = Pancreas
    U = Ureters
    C = Colon (ascending and descending only)
    K = Kidneys
    E = Esophagus
    R = Rectum

    Or instead, 
    Ursula Uses Kids to Deliver All Lemon Pies except Sue’s Tasty Crust
    Urinary bladder
    Adrenal glands
    Large intestine
    except (not retroperitoneal) Sigmoid and Transverse Colon 

    Feb. 2009
    System -- 17
    Hydrolysis  Marieb Ex 39 and Supplement.
    A&P Students Feb 2006A&P Students Feb 2009
    System -- 17
    Nutrition and 
    Metabolism -- 18
    MIDTERM LAB EXAM (100 points)
     [9] Respiratory System Anatomy. Marieb Ex 36, Diss Ex 6.  Dissection and Histology DAT's Right! - the oxygen dissociation curve shifts RIGHT whenever there is an INCREASE in any of the following: DPG, Acidity,Temperature (DAT)
  • Human Anatomy (cadaver dissection, etc.)  Gold Standard Integrated Medical Curriculum.
  • Thyroid. The thyroid cartilage, or Adam's Apple, which protects the throat, was named for its resemblance to the shields of Homeric warriors, deriving from the Greek work for "shield" or "shield-shaped." It gave its name to the thyroid gland that straddles the windpipe. The term is first recorded in 1693. [from]
    System -- 19

    How metabolic
    or alkalosis
    can arise 
    and how these
    shift the 

    Acid Base
    Tulane University 
    School of 

    Respiratory Function  Marieb Ex. 37. 
    Biopac, etc.

    LAB QUIZ 7  on the previous lab will be administered at the start of lab.

    Online Calculator to determine predicted Vital Capacity from sex, age and height.

    Lung function values are influenced by height, age, and sex. Consequently, to compare pulmonary function among different individuals, percent predicted values can be determined from the following equations (A = age in yr, and H = height in cm):  Forced vital capacity = FVC. 
    FVC males: 0.0844(H) - 0.0298(A) - 8.782 
    FVC females: 0.0427(H) - 0.0174(A) - 2.900

    Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) 
    FEV1 males: 0.067(H) - 0.0292(A) - 6.515 
    FEV1 females: 0.0309(H) - 0.0201(A) - 1.405

    System -- 19
    Anatomy of the Urinary System  Marieb Ex 40, Diss Ex 8.
  • LAB QUIZ 8 on the previous lab will be administered at the start of lab. 
  • "If each proximal tubule is 60 microns [long] and there are 2 million nephrons per kidney, then each kidney has around 16 miles of PCT" -- Dr. Kerrie Hoar Sept. 2012
    Renal segmental vessels:  Arteries yes. Veins, no.
    Gray's Anatomy, for one, recognizes segmental arteries but denies the existence of segmental veins (38e p. 1827). Gartner & Hiatt's Color Textbook of Histology (1e p. 374) says "Note the absence of lobar and segmental veins in contrast with the arterial system of the kidney." Hollinshead's Textbook of Anatomy (5e p. 615-616) describes the segmental arteries and then explicitly states that the kidneys do not have segmental veins. Clement's Anatomy illustrates and labels the segmental arteries, and illustrates the venous drainage without identifying or showing any segmental veins. Fawcett's Textbook of Histology (12e, p. 753-754) describes the segmental arteries but conspicuously omits segmental veins from its detailed description of the venous drainage. Bailey's Textbook of Microscopic Anatomy (18e p. 671) also describes the venous drainage in reasonable detail, with no mention of segmental veins. -- Dr. Ken Saladin June, 2005
    System -- 20
     [12] Urine Composition and Tests  Marieb Ex 41, Physio-Ex 9, Supplement.

    LAB QUIZ 8  on the previous lab will be administered at the start of lab. 

    • Atlas of Urinary sediment:  See images on facstaff\biology.
    • Color chart for urine test strips:  See images on facstaff\biology.
    • Urinalysis  This site gives information on normal and abnormal urine chemistry, urine sediment exam, etc. 
    • Urinalysis Tutorial 

    • "Specific gravity (which is directly proportional to urine osmolality which measures solute concentration) measures urine density, or the ability of the kidney to concentrate or dilute the urine over that of plasma.  Dipsticks are available that also measure specific gravity in approximations.  Most laboratories measure specific gravity with a refractometer.
      Specific gravity between 1.002 and 1.035 on a random sample should be considered normal if kidney function is normal.  Since the sp gr of the glomerular filtrate in Bowman's space ranges from 1.007 to 1.010, any measurement below this range indicates hydration and any measurement above it indicates relative dehydration."
      "Less than 0.1% of glucose normally filtered by the glomerulus appears in urine (< 130 mg/24 hr).  Glycosuria (excess sugar in urine) generally means diabetes mellitus. Dipsticks employing the glucose oxidase reaction for screening are specific for glucos glucose but can miss other reducing sugars such as galactose and fructose. For this reason, most newborn and infant urines are routinely screened for reducing sugars by methods other than glucose oxidase (such as the Clinitest, a modified Benedict's copper reduction test)."
    • Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
    • Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Tutorial
    • Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Pathway Interactive Tutorial from Alverno
    System -- 20

    Fluids &
    Electrolytes -- 21

    How metabolic 
    acidosis or 
    alkalosis can 
    arise and 
    how these 
    shift the

    Clinical correlates 
    of pH levels
    (The Biology Project
    These Tutorials 
    are highly 

    Edema tutorial
    Sodium tutorial

    Reproductive Anatomy (female and male)Marieb Ex 42, 43, Diss Ex 9.   Dissection, models, etc. 
  • LAB QUIZ 10  on the previous lab will be administered at the start of lab. 
  • Wasserman test:
    Many medical tests, including the Pap test for cancer and the Schick test for diphtheria, are named for the physicians who devised them. The Wasserman test was invented in 1906 by August von Wasserman (1866-1925), a German physician and bacteriologist. This laboratory blood test for the diagnosis of syphilis, also known as the cardiolipin test, has been perfected to the point where it is 99 percent effective on normal persons. The test is based on the presence of antibodies in the blood. In most cases a positive Wasserman reveals that the patient has syphilis, although vaccination procedures and several diseases, such as leprosy, also produce a positive Wasserman. August von Wasserman, who began his career as a physician in Strasbourg, won international fame for his discovery. He became director of Berlin's Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in 1913.  Source:
    System -- 22
    Human Development. Marieb Ex 44, 45. 
    DVD's, Supplement

  • LAB QUIZ 11 on the previous lab will be administered at the start of lab. 
  • Wednesday lab students 25 April 2012
    System -- 22

    Development -- 23
    Biology of 
    Human Aging

    Genetics Examples (Lecture Unit 5)  Marieb Ex 45. Human 
    Genetics -- 24
    Final Exam
      FINAL LAB EXAM (100 points)
  • Practice Quizzes (by Pat Flynn)  Available on \\winfile2\biology

  • Final Exam Week

    Lecture Final (Comprehensive). (Final Exams)
    Course Resources are available on CBU's biology shared directory  [Restricted to CBU]
    • How to Access the Biology shared Directory [Available on CBU campus and via VPN]
      • Anyone can access the shared volume from any CBU networked Macintosh or PC on campus that can handle file sharing.  This includes campus-wide wireless access for your laptop as well as all the PCs in the Computer Center, the Science Building, Buckman, the Library, and Nolan Hall.  A person could also connect to this from their CBU dorm room. 
      • Map a network drive (Windows):
      • • Open Windows Explorer (or Computer in Win7)
        • Pull down the Tools menu
        • Select Map network drive
        • At the Map Network Drive dialog box:
          o Drive: (just leave whatever drive letter is shown)
          o Type in  Folder: \\winfile2\biology
          o Click this link:  Connect using a different user name (or connect using different credentials in Win7)
          o Click  Finish
        • At the Connect As… dialog box:
          o type in  User name: cbu\yourusername (this is your cbu email username)
          o Password: your cbu email password (this is your Active Directory password)
          o Click OK
        If you are using a shared computer, don't forget to Disconnect the mapped drive when you are finished.
      • Macintosh users:  go to connect to server then follow the instructions given above.
    • What's Available: Open the Resources folder for your Biology course.  Lecture Resources include PowerPoint lecture slides for each course Unit.  Lab Resources include required Digital Images and tutorials sorted by lab topic. (In AH 107, use the ACDSee image browser.)
    • For use off campus, use AH 107 a computer to copy files onto a flash drive.
    • For on-campus use, you do not have to save copies of the images or PowerPoint slides!  They will be on \\winfile2\biology the next time you need them.  (Please do NOT copy course materials into your CBU directory space!)