Dr. Anna E. Ross's Histology Course
Anna E. Ross, Ph.D.  Professor Emerita of Biology
Christian Brothers University, 650 East Parkway South, Memphis, TN 38104
2019 is the last offering of Histology taught by Dr. Ross.
Dr. Ross retired from CBU in May 2019.
This page is no longer being updated.
Former Office: AH 111  (901) 321-3436
Please note that for Spring 2019 Dr. Ross will not have formal office hours. Please email aross@cbu.edu with any questions or concerns and please contact Dr. Ross arrance a convenient time to meet.
email: aross@cbu.edu
   This email will remian active after my retirement.
BIOL 414 and BIOL 414L: Animal Histology
Spring 2019.
(Histology is offered at CBU in odd-numbered Spring semesters.)

Compact Bone
Hyaline Cartilage
April 2011
Histology Home Page Contents:

  • Accessing Digital Images
  • Links, Notes, Q&A
  • Don't Forget: Histology DVDs in AH 107.
  • Web Resources
  • Histology Course Information   (2019 Syllabus pdf)
  • Enrolled students can see quiz and exam scores using Moodle.
  • Room AH 107 Spring 2019 Schedule       
  • "There are two names for everything in anatomy, except... dramatic pause... when there are three or more." Dr. Terry Meehan
    "You cannot be a great anatomist, unless you know 87 different names for the same damn thing!" Dr. Roberta Meehan

    Ross and Pawlina 7th edition
    Ross and Pawlina 6th edition
    Required Materials for the 2019 course

    Pawlina, Wojciech. 2016.  Histology A Text and Atlas.  7th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.  ISBN 9781451187427  Amazon.com    OR  Ross and Pawlina. 2010.  Histology A Text and Atlas.  6th ed.  ISBN: 978-0-7817-7200-6. Amazon.com   

    Eroschenko, Victor P. 2012.  diFiore's Atlas of Histology with Functional Correlations, 12th edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 9781451113419  Amazon.com  [Also acceptable: 11th ed. ISBN 978-0-7817-7057-6. Amazon.com]

    Course Supplement: 
    Ross, Anna E. 2019. BIOL 414 Animal Histology Lecture and Laboratory Course Supplement, 2019 edition.

    Digital Images for CBU Histology, Biol 414:  \\winfile2\biology

    Students must provide their own disposable gloves (latex or nitrile examination gloves).

      On Campus Resources (in Room AH 107):
    • Histology DVDs are available in AH 107. (These are availalble in VHS format in the CBU Library.)
    • Practice Histology Lab Quiz (from Dr. Ash at Univ. of Utah) is available on CBU Biology lab computers. \\winfile2\biology 
    • Digital images for Histology are availalbe to CBU students on the shared directory.  \\winfile2\biology
    Web Resources for Histology (Also see links listed under each course unit and in moodle)  
    Course Resources are available on CBU's biology shared directory  [Restricted to CBU]
    How to Access the Biology shared Directory [Available on CBU campus]
    • Anyone can access the shared volume from any CBU networked Macintosh or PC on campus that can handle file sharing.  This includes campus-wide wireless access for your laptop as well as all the PCs in the Computer Center, the Science Building, Buckman, the Library, and Nolan Hall.  A person could also connect to this from their CBU dorm room. 
      • Map a network drive (Windows)::
        • Open Windows Explorer (or Computer in Win7)
        • Pull down the Tools menu
        • Select Map network drive
        • At the Map Network Drive dialog box:
          o Drive: (just leave whatever drive letter is shown)
          o Type in  Folder: \\winfile2\biology
          o Click this link:  Connect using a different user name (or connect using different credentials in Win7)
          o Click  Finish
        • At the Connect As… dialog box:
          o type in  User name: cbu\yourusername (this is your cbu email username)
          o Password: your cbu email password (this is your Active Directory password)
          o Click OK
        If you are using a shared computer, don't forget to Disconnect the mapped drive when you are finished.
      • Macintosh: 
        1. Make sure that you are in finder and not in an application. In the toolbar, the top left hand corner should say "Finder" in bold. If it does not, just click on the desktop background.
        2. Four places over to the right from the word "Finder" in the toolbar it should have the word "Go," click on that and scroll down to the bottom and click on "Connect to server."
        3. A pop up box will appear. In that box you should have a space to type in that says "Server Address." In that space type in the address "smb://winfile2.cbu.edu/biology" and hit connect. You should now be on the Biology Shared Directory.
    • What's Available: Open the Resources folder for the Histology course.  Lecture Resources include PowerPoint lecture slides for each course Unit.  Lab Resources include required Digital Images and tutorials sorted by lab topic. 

    Differential staining of DNA vs. RNA

    Goblet cell, 

    Histology Unit 1
  • Microscope Slides for Unit 1 (also see Course Supplement)
    • Cytology

    • Box H-125   Golgi apparatus, pancreas (Silver stain).  Triarch brand
      Box H-9   Mitochondria, turtle liver.  Triarch brand
      Box H-9   Liver, Kuppfer cells (macrophages have ingested carbon). Ssee DiFiore.
      Box H-9   Glycogen stained, mammalian liver.  Triarch brand
      Box H-143   Adipose (lipid stained with osmium tetroxide) Carolina brand
      Box H-143   Adipose w.m. lipid stained with Sudan IV.  Carolina brand.
    • Mitosis  Mitosis: Whitefish blastula, sec. Iro hematoxylin stain.
    • Epithelium

    • H1 Squamous Epithelium, w.m., surface view (some stained to show cell boundaries).  Simple Squamous Epithelium  and surface view of Stratified Squamous Epithelium
      H2 Mesothelium:  w.m. shows surface view of Simple Squamous Epithelium; sec. shows “side view” of Simple Squamous Epithelium (caution, connective tissue in the center, epithelium only at the free surface).  Mesothelium is a serous membrane.
      H4 Cornea:  Inner surface (corneal endothelium) = Simple low Cuboidal Epithelium (it is one layer of large, hexagonal “squamous” cells, some authors classify this as Simple Squamous Epithelium).  Outer surface (anterior) -- Stratified Squamous Epithelium (approximately 5 layers of large cells, squamous cells at surface)  [stroma of cornea is connective tissue = bundles of collagen fibers]
      Lens capsule:  Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
      H6 Kidney:  Medulla – epithelia lining collecting tubes include Simple Cuboidal Epithelium and (more difficult to find) Simple Columnar Epithelium; lining the thin segment of the loop of Henle is Simple Squamous Epithelium. 
      Kidney:  Cortex – Simple Squamous Epithelium forms Bowman’s capsule, the glomerular capillaries, and other capillaries; lining the distal and proximal convoluted tubules of the nephron is Simple Cuboidal Epithelium.  [Compare 1.5µm slides to the “standard” slides.]
      H7 Lung and Bronchioles:  lining the largest bronchi is Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium (with a few goblet cells); as the bronchioles get smaller, the lining gets thinner:  Ciliated pseudostratified epithelium then Ciliated Simple columnar Epithelium and Simple Cuboidal Epithelium; lining alveoli and capillaries is Simple Squamous epithelium. [Compare 1.5? slides to the “standard” slides.]
      H11 Thyroid:  Simple Cuboidal Epithelium lines the follicles of this endocrine gland (the “cuboidal” cells may be flattened by the contents of the follicle).  Note the follicle arrangement of endocrine parenchyma. [Compare 1.5µm slides to the “standard” slides.]
      H14 Duodenum:  lining the inner surface is Simple Columnar Epithelium with striated border (microvilli), goblet cells (single cell mucous glands); the mucosa and submucosa are thrown into villi; glands can be seen in the mucosa (intestinal glands; = simple tubular) and in the submucosa (Brunner’s glands  = compound branched tubular glands [tubuloalveolar at the ends] with ducts to the surface) [Compare 1.5µm slides to the “standard” slides.]
      H17 Colon, c.s.:  lining the inner surface is Simple Columnar Epithelium with striated border, mostly goblet cells, some intestinal glands, no villi
      H22 Trachea, c.s.:  Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium (compare and contrast to Simple Columnar Epithelium); note cilia, goblet cells, glands beneath the epithelium
      H19 Epididymis, c.s.:  Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium with stereocilia (stereocilia are long, branching microvilli, not cilia); also note sperm in the lumen of the long, coiled duct
      H23 Urinary Bladder (expanded and contracted sec.):  Transitional Epithelium; compare the cell shapes lining the stretched vs. the unstretched bladder wall; note the number of layers of cells in the epithelium
      H25 Skin, human (thick skin, as on palm and soles):  Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium (epidermis), layers of epidermis include the very thick stratum corneum (at surface) and the deepest layer is the stratum basale (stratum germinativum) in contact with the basal lamina.  Also note eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands (simple coiled tubular, coiled secretory part in the dermis is simple secretory epithelium; the coiled duct is lined with stratified cuboidal epithelium (two layers of cuboidal cells)
      H27 Human Scalp:  epidermis is Keratinized stratified Squamous Epithelium (Stratum corneum not as thick as on palm or sole); sebaceous glands empty into hair follicles (clusters of 2-5 acini/alveoli in the dermis are drained by a single duct; the duct is lined with stratified squamous epithelium; holocrine secretion [sebum])
      [Additional images are in the Integument unit.]
      H33 Esophagus:  lining is Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium, nuclei flattened in surface cells; may have esophageal glands beneath the epithelium (simple branched tubular)  [Also see box H-114]
      H51 Parotid Salivary Gland:  compound tubuloacinar gland; secretory units are both acini and tubules (Simple Cuboidal Epithelium or Simple Columnar Epithelium) produce serous secretion; intralobular ducts lined with simple cuboidal epithelium 
      [Additional images in the digestive system unit.]
  • Web Sites for Unit 1:
  • Unit 1 Notes and Guidelines:
    • 1. The Digital images, microscope slides, reference printed atlases, and CD-ROM's used in Lab are available for your use during study lab times (i.e., any time 8:00 am--5:00 pm M-F when there is not another class in AH 107). 

    • Dr. Ross will be pleased to answer your questions or set up a DVD for you to use.
    • 2. Web Sites assigned for Lab include LUMEN Histology

    • More web sites are linked above and from the PowerPoint Slides 
    • 3. What will be on the Lab Exam? 

    • Digital images, Digitized Laser disc images, photocopied photomicrographs, diagrams, microscope slides, etc. The exam questions will include: "Name the specific structure (indicated by pointer or mark)," "Name the Tissue," and/or "Identify the Source," etc.
    Histology Unit 1 Lecture Slides are available on \\winfile2\biology. [Restricted to CBU]
    Who named it?  Paul Langerhans (1847-1888)
      "Langerhans’ main scientific achievements consist in his studies of human and animal  microscopical anatomy. In this field he was among the first successful investigators to explore the new area of research with novel methods and staining techniques." 
    • "Paul Langerhans (1847-1888) published his doctoral thesis in 1869 describing a subset of pancreatic cells, now named the islands or islets of Langerhans.  Islets of Langerhans contain insulin producing beta cells which are of fundamental importance to diabetes research today. Also while still a medical student working in Virchow's laboratory in Berlin, in 1868 he published a description of structures in human skin, now called Langerhans' granular layer and Langerhans' stellate corpuscles. The former of these structures contains the 'Langerhans' cells' now found to be antigen presenting cells in tumor immunology."

    • http://www.pnri.org/seminars/lang-vir/langvir.html

    |Histology Page Contents|

    Hyaline Cartilage

    Compact Bone

  • Histology Unit 2
    • Microscope Slide List for Unit 2 (in the Course Supplement) is also available on winfile2.  The file is in the "Unit 2" subdirectory; it is an MSWord document and is named "0 Unit 2 Microscope Slide List Connective Tissue.doc"
      • Human Blood Smear (Wright's stain)  Box H-120.  Prepared slides (Carolina Biol. brand) 
    • The Supplement includes information on the format & coverage of lecture and lab exam 2.   The document is also on \\winfile2\biology.
  • Histology Powerpoint slides are available on \\winfile2\biology.   [Restricted to CBU]

  • Unit 2 Q&A:

    Does the periosteum produce the osteoblasts for compact bone formation, and the Endosteum for the spongy bone?

    Both Periosteum and Endosteum are sources of fibroblasts which can differentiate into osteoblasts (osteogenic cells). However, there is no clear-cut rule about periosteum/endosteum and compact/spongy bone. During the first formation of a bone (either endochondral or intramembranous) osteoid forms then spongy bone trabeculae are formed (both peri- and endosteum are involved). Then compact bone is formed by remodeling the spongy bone (and osteoid). Again, both peri- and endosteum are involved.

    • See R&P. Notice the labels for "periosteal bone" and "endochondral bone"... both begin as osteoid then trabeculae, etc. 
    • The process of healing a break also illustrates that there is no "rule" that periosteum always forms compact bone. During healing, the injury stimulates the cells of the periosteum to proliferate. Fibroblasts from periosteum and endosteum invade the injury site and begin to form callus (osteoid). The callus at first resembles fibrous C.T. then is gradually ossified. Spongy bone trabeculae are formed first, then compact bone forms around the periphery. 
    • Similarly, during the first ossification of the cartilage model in fetal bone formation the periosteal (perichondrial) "collar" forms trabeculae of spongy bone. This spongy bone is later remodeled and replaced by compact bone by the further action of differentiating cells from the periosteum. 
    • During appositional growth and the continual remodeling of both membrane and endochondral bone the periosteum contributes to the growth and remodeling of compact bone at the surface. 
    • Endosteum is involved in the continual remodeling of spongy bone. (This is where we look on our slides to see osteoblasts and osteoclasts, etc.) But, endosteum also can form compact bone during the remodeling of the maturing marrow cavity. 
    • Therefore, during bone formation, growth, and during healing both of these membranes are the sources for new osteoblasts. 
    • See R&P figure. Notice that both the periosteum and endosteum are adjacent to compact bone. 
    • You may want to take a look at the sectioned femur and pieces of animal and human bone to appreciate the transition from spongy to compact bone within the marrow cavity of a bone. 
    What is the clear cut distinction between fibers, fibrils, and microfibrils of connective tissue fibers (size, shape, etc.)? 

    It's a good thing you asked! This is not easy to figure out. (I recommend careful study of R&P first.)

  • First: consider the synthesis, structure and appearance of collagen molecules, fibrils, fibers, and fiber bundles. Be sure to distinguish among LM-visible features, TEM-visible features, and biochemical features. Compare the sizes and arrangements of the collagenous fibrils and fibers. (Don't forget about the collagens that do not form fibrils.) 
  • The collagen fibrils discussed in T&B and R&P are EM Fibrils (also called EM microfibrils or unit fibrils... but be sure to specify collagen). The collagen fibrils are formed (in Type I, II, and III collagen) by packing staggered, aligned tropocollagen molecules (each is about 1.5 nm in diameter). [Review the reason for the 68 nm cross banding pattern.] The EM Fibrils of collagen vary in diameter from 15-200 nm. Confusion arises because of the use of terms such as "LM Fibrils" to refer to those thick fibrils of tendon that are thick enough to be discerned with LM (remember 200 nm = 0.2 microns). (R&K wisely avoid this, but they do sometimes say "fiber" when they mean fibril.) 
    • Next, consider how reticular and elastic fibers compare. Don't give up yet... this does make sense! 
      • Reticular fibers are made of collagen fibrils (only Type III or IV collagen) and the fibrils are "always of narrow diameter (about 20 nm), and typically the fibrils do not bundle to form thick fibers." -- R&P. "Reticular fibers have a very fine diameter (100-500 nm) and are branching anastomosing threads that tend to form a network (reticulum) instead of bundles." -- T&B page 87. Also note that there's more carbohydrate than in collagenous fibers so reticular fibers are strongly PAS+. 
      • Elastic fibers are composed of two structural components, elastin and microfibrils." R&P. The microfibrils of elastic fibers are made of glycoproteins such as fibrillin and are 12 nm in diameter. Elastin is deposited on the microfibrils. Elastic fibers are NOT made of collagen! [So, they do not show any cross banding.] Elastic fibers are really thin (T&B say about 1 micron in diameter) and they do branch. 
    • Reference: Ross & Pawlina: Ch. 6. "Collagen Fibers and Fibrils"  "Reticular Fibers"  "Elastic Fibers" 
    WBC relative abundance (Differential WBC Count): 
    "Never Let Mom (or men) Eat Beans" 
    and "60, 30, 6, 3, 1" 
        Neutrophils >60% of WBC's
        Lymphocytes 30% 
        Monocytes 6% 
        Eosinophils 3% 
        Basophils <1% of WBC's
    Order of Zones of Endochondral Bone Formation 
    (from epiphysis toward diaphysis):
    "Really Prominent Histologists Can Read Organs."
        Reserve cartilage
        Proliferating cartilage
        Hypertrophy of cartilage
        Calcified cartilage
        Resorption of cartilage
        Ossification (bone deposition)

    |Histology Page Contents|
    Histology 17 Feb 2011Histology 17 Feb 2011Histology 17 Feb 2011
    Skeletal Muscle Tissue Fiber

    Cardiac Muscle Tissue

    Smooth Muscle Tissue

    Multipolar neurons in gray matter of spinal cord.

    Motor neuron terminals on skeletal muscle fibers (Myoneural junctions)

    Unit 3 Muscle and Nervous Tissue; Nervous System

    Muscle Tissue:

    Neural Tissue
    • Digital images: 

    • Neurons, Neuroglia, Spinal cord, Spinal ganglion, ANS ganglia, Cerebrum, Cerebellum, peripheral nerve.
    Myofibrils are bigger than myofilaments.
    "Sliding filament" mechanism involves thin (mostly actin) and thick (myosin) myofilaments.
    Transverse Banding in muscle fibers:  Memory help
    A / overlap  [A = thick (myosin) myofilaments + overlap]
    I / thin  [I = thin (mostly actin) myofilaments, no overlap]
  • Skeletal Muscle:  Triad (t-tubule between 2 terminal cisternae) at A-I junction
    • Cardic Muscle:  Diad with t-tubule at Z line (no large terminal cisternae)
  • Histology Unit 3 PowerPoint slides are available on \\winfile2\biology. 
  • Available in AH 107:  CD-ROM: Microscopic Anatomy. 
  • Neural Tissue and Nervous System Web sites: PowerPoint Slides for Histology are available on \\winfile2\biology.   [Restricted to CBU]

    Unit 3 Q&A

    Are terminal bouton, Presynaptic knob, and End bulb all terms for the same thing?

    • Answer:
    • Yes. There are differences in the traditional usage of these terms (for LM vs. physiological descriptions, etc.). There is also some variety in the shapes of synaptic end bulbs.
    What exactly are the intramural ganglia, and do they in any way have relation to the enteric portion of the autonomic N.S. which the book makes reference to?
    • Answer:
    • From lecture slides: Autonomic Ganglia 
    • Locations:
    • 1. Sympathetic chain ganglia 
      2. Intramural location (closer to or embedded in the organ innervated):
      * in nearby mesentery or
      * in walls of the organ (intramural) 
      • Therefore, the category of intramural ganglia certainly includes enteric ganglia! (You will also find this in your lecture notes because I use this terminology when I discuss this topic in class.) As you review this, consider the example of the nerve cell bodies we have seen in the myenteric plexus... what terms can be used to categorize this ganglion? 
    What is the exact definition of the neurilemmal sheath?
    • Answer:
    • Neurilemmal sheath (sheath of Schwann): The glial cell material investing (surrounding) nerve fibers of the PNS. This sheath is continuous with the capsule of satellite cells surrounding the perikarya of neurons in the spinal ganglia. R&P defines neurilemmal cells as Schwann cells.
      • R&P specifies that neurilemma is external and contiguous with the myelin sheath and is a layer of Schwann cell cytoplasm containing the nucleus and most of the organelles of the Schwann cell.
      • Some authors also use the term neurilemmal sheath to describe the Schwann cell material protecting unmyelinated nerve fibers. 
        The neurilemmal sheath plays a crucial role in healing of damaged nerve fibers in the PNS. The absence of this material in the CNS is thought to be a primary reason that damaged nerve cell processes in the CNS cannot normally heal themselves.
    In R&P, striated muscle is further divided into skeletal muscle, visceral striated muscle, and cardiac muscle. Are visceral muscle and visceral striated muscle the same?
    • Answer:
    • Notice that this section (page 214) refers only to the appearance of the cells. These categories are not the same as the "official tissue names." 
      Most histologists DON'T use R&P's "visceral striated muscle" category. No one uses this as the name for a tissue. Most authors use the "official tissue name" SKELETAL MUSCLE to refer to both R&P's skeletal muscle *and* R&P's visceral striated muscle. (That's what R&P do in the rest of the chapter.) 
      • For example, intrinsic muscle of the tongue is histologically identical to skeletal muscle and it is innervated by somatic efferent nerves (voluntary motor control). So, most histologists call it skeletal muscle tissue even though the intrinsic muscles of the tongue do not attach to any bone. By the way, slices through the base of the tongue could include both intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue. These are identical tissues. However, the extrinsic muscles of the tongue do attach to the hyoid apparatus so would be considered skeletal muscle by R&P. 
      • Also, the innervation of R&P's visceral striated muscle is NOT always visceral innervation (visceral motor control is via the ANS - "involuntary"). Again, consider the intrinsic muscles of the tongue -- voluntary motor control. 
    • The cases of the skeletal muscle tissue of the pharynx and diaphragm are more complex. The skeletal muscle tissue present is innervated by both ANS and somatic motor fibers. (This permits gag reflex and reflexive breathing as well as voluntary control of swallowing and breathing.) 
      • For another reason that R&P's "visceral striated muscle" category is too confusing to use as a tissue name, consider that CARDIAC MUSCLE is visceral muscle (ANS innervation, involuntary) and it is striated but is NOT included in R&P's "visceral striated muscle" category! The "official tissue name" is CARDIAC MUSCLE. This tissue IS histologically distinct from skeletal muscle and from smooth muscle. 
    • By the way, smooth muscle tissue is visceral muscle but it is not striated muscle. 

    • Visceral muscle and visceral striated muscle are NOT the same. Neither term is an "official tissue name" for our purposes. The term "visceral muscle" would probably mean smooth muscle (but it could also refer to cardiac muscle). Visceral organs include the respiratory system and the GI tract. Visceral innervation is generally via the ANS (autonomic nervous system) which is visceral motor in function. Sensory information from smooth muscle is carried by visceral sensory neurons. 
      So, you see why we stick with the three traditional "official tissue names" for the three types of muscle tissue: Smooth Muscle, Skeletal Muscle, and Cardiac Muscle.
      Neural Tissue (artist's conception)

    |Histology Page Contents|

    Histology Unit 4:
    Circulatory, Lymphatic, Integument, and Digestive (in part).

    Histology DVDs in AH 107 

    Histology Unit 4 PowerPoint available on \\winfile2\biology [Restricted to CBU]

    • Histol Unit 4 (part 1) Cardiovascular & Lymphatic Systems
    • Histol Unit 4 (part 2) Integumentary System 
    • Histol Unit 4 (part 3) Digestive System: Oral cavity through Stomach
  • Web Sites Unit 4:
  • Question: What are R&K's epithelioreticular cells and how do they relate to Nurse Cells and specialized Epithelial Cells in the Thymus?

    Answer: The epithelioreticular cells are the "specialized epithelial cells" in the thymus.  These specialized cells are labeled on a few micrographs on the shared directory and in some of the CD-ROM's. Thymocytes are the maturing T-lymphocytes in the thymus.

    • Large, specialized "epithelial cells" secrete hormone (thymosin) to attract neonatal lymphocytes from the bone marrow. These "epithelial cells" then may have numerous thymocytes adjacent to their cytoplasmic processes. [R&P term these cells epithelioreticular cells, but note they tell us they do NOT produce reticular fibers. They use the term because the epithelial cells have cytoplasmic processes that form a network (reticulum). p. 346.] The epithelial cells "present" antigens to the thymocytes. Thymocytes that respond to self-antigens are destroyed. And others are stimulated to proliferate.) Additionally, large "nurse cells" are present. The cytoplasm of each "nurse cell" surrounds several thymocytes.
    • On our thin-section slides of thymus we can see some large, round, pale nuclei. [See R&P] These are certainly not thymocytes... so they are most likely the specialized epithelial cells. You may also be able to spot a"nurse cell." (You won't have to differentiate these on the lab exam.) There are also some macrophages (PAS cells) visible in these slides. By the way, there are not many Hassalls' corpuscles on these newer, thin-section slides and I found them a bit difficult to recognize. Be sure to see the older, ordinary slides of thymus too!
      |Histology Page Contents|  
      Histology Unit 5 Material:

    Histology DVDs in AH 107 

  • Additional Microscope Slides for Unit 5:
  • Digestive System
  • Box H-146 Liver
  • ~ Pig Liver, trichrome stain (Triarch brand 6)More C.T. between lobules than in human liver.
    ~ Human Liver, thin sec. (Carolina brand 6).Notice Space of Disse, etc.
  • Box H-9  Mitochondria, turtle liver. Triarch brand (6)
  • Box H-9  Glycogen stained, mammalian liver. Triarch brand (1, 3 more back ordered)
  • Box H-125  Golgi apparatus, pancreas, Silver stain. (Triarch brand 6)
  • Box H-125  Pancreas A, B, D cells (Mallory Azan stain).  Triarch brand.
  • Respiratory System
  • H-86  Epithelium, Olfactory [As listed, added more slides:  Wards] (Wards brand).  The view is different in these compared to the Turtox brand.  In the Wards slides, look for “trapped” sections of olfactory epithelium, disconnected from the free surfaces in the section.
  • Urinary System
  • Box H-117  Kidney, near median section at ureter exit.  (Triarch brand 4)
  • Histology Unit 5 PowerPoint slides are available on \\winfile2\biology [Restricted to CBU]
      Histol Unit 5 (part 1)Digestive system.
      Histol Unit 5 (part 2) Respiratory system
      Histol Unit 5 (part 3) Urinary System.
    • Ileocecal Junction (= ileocecal valve) microscope slides can be difficult to interpret. (Try more than one slide.) Some slides do not show continguous tissue along the transition zone. Instead, you may find two or three different pockets of mucosa. Look for villi in the ileum. You will not be asked to distinguish different regions of the large intestine (such as colon vs. cecum). "Ileocecal valve" slides are usually slides of the ileocecal junction. 
    • Appendix: Although the microscope slides were omitted, you do need to know the digital images (on \\winfile2\biology) and digitized laser disc images of appendix. 
    • Liver "Liver, glycogen stained" in Box H-9.  Try the newer microscope slides of glycogen in the liver.  Also see the digital images we saw in Unit 1. Cytology carousel, slide 42; this uses a different stain to show glycogen in the liver. 
      Multimedia Assignments for Histology Unit 5   
    Unit 5 Q&A:

    Question: What should we know about the lamina propria of the large intestine (collagen table, pericryptal fibroblast sheath, etc.). This section was not covered in the lecture slides. 

    Yes you DO need to know the histology of the lamina propria of the colon. (The lecture slides are only an outline.)  The short list in R&P is a good guide to the essential features. 

    Histology of the lamina propria of the colon:

    • The collagen table is at the superficial part of the lamina propria (it makes it look as though there is a very thick basal lamina). This collagen (in the form of fine collagen fibers and reticular fibers) forms a permeable barrier between the epithelium and the venous capillaries which regulates water and electrolyte transport. 
    • The GALT of the colon's lamina propria includes lymphatic nodules (but no lymph vessels). 
    • The pericryptal fibroblast sheath includes helically arranged collagenous fibers that direct the paths of cell migration and fibroblasts that apparantly differentiate into macrophages. 
    Question: Are transverse rectal folds the same thing as anal valves?
    No they are not the same. Since R&P does not include the details on this point, let's look at the distinction. (This is covered in the lecture slides.)
    • Recto-anal Junction 
      • (R&P) Transverse rectal folds are in the upper (proximal) part of the rectum (a.k.a. transverse rectal plicae on R&P fig.) 
    • Rectal columns (of Morgani) are longitudinnal folds of the mucosa just proximal to the pectinate line
    • The pectinate line is where simple columnar epithelium changes to noncornified stratified squamous epithelium; distal to the pectinate line there are no more intestinal glands, etc. 
    • The distal ends of the rectal columns are united by transverse mucosal folds called anal valves and the recess above each valve is called an anal sinus (a.k.a. rectal sinus, see R&P fig.). 
    • By the way, it is at the level of the anal valves that the muscularis mucosa becomes discontinuous and disappears.
    Who named it?
    • Paul Langerhans (1847-1888)

    • "Langerhans’ main scientific achievements consist in his studies of human and animal  microscopical anatomy. In this field he was among the first successful investigators to explore the new area of research with novel methods and staining techniques." 
    • "Paul Langerhans (1847-1888) published his doctoral thesis in 1869 describing a subset of pancreatic cells, now named the islands or islets of Langerhans.  Islets of Langerhans contain insulin producing beta cells which are of fundamental importance to diabetes research today. Also while still a medical student working in Virchow's laboratory in Berlin, in 1868 he published a description of structures in human skin, now called Langerhans' granular layer and Langerhans' stellate corpuscles. The former of these structures contains the 'Langerhans' cells' now found to be antigen presenting cells in tumor immunology."

    • http://www.pnri.org/seminars/lang-vir/langvir.html
      |Histology Page Contents|  

    Final Exam Dates (TBA): 

    • Lecture Exam #5 
      • Date and Time: Last day of class
    • Comprehensive Lecture Final Exam 
      • Date and Time: TBA
      • [100 points; objective format.]  The Comprehensive Lecture Final Exam will be 100 points + 5 Bonus Points. 
      • 100 questions are Multiple Choice + 5 Fill-in Questions (tissue names) for the 5 Bonus points.
    • Study Lab Times (in AH 107) During Final Exam week:
      • TBA
    • Lab Exam #5 is the Lab Final. 
      • Date and Time:  TBA  [See course Supplement for Format & Coverage]
      |Histology Page Contents|  
    • READ the labels on the microscope slides! The slide boxes often contain several different slides. You need to be certain about what you are supposed to notice on each microscope slide. 
    • Please take only one microscope slide at a time. Don't park microscope slides on the table tops or in a drawer. 

    • Please return microscope slides to the correct box!  You need to consult your lists of microscope slides to determine where the slides go... or just ask... but don't guess. Also, please keep slide boxes in order. 
    • Please keep your microscope clean. 
    CBU Students: Send your course-related questions to me via email!
      email: aross@cbu.edu Any questions you'd like to see discussed here? 

    Course Information and Objectives
    BIOL 414 Animal Histology and Lab
    • Lecture-Discussion: Tues. and Thurs. 9:30-10:50 am in AH 107.
    • Laboratory-Lecture: Tues. and Thurs. 11:00-12:25 pm in AH 107.

    • Optional Histology Study Lab Session Mon. 2:00-4:30 pm in AH 107.  (AH 107 schedule)
      (Lecture and Lab are co-requisites and must be taken concurrently.)
    • Offered Spring Semester in odd-numbered years. 
    • Histology is a Group I Biology elective applicable to the biology Major.
    Course Description:
    A study of the microscopic and ultramicroscopic structure of mammalian tissues and organs, i.e., microscopic anatomy. Special emphasis is placed on the relation of structure to function. This course gives the student a thorough and detailed overview of the various human tissues and organs. This is an upper level course designed for students who want intensive preparation in microanatomy. The course is designed for qualified juniors and seniors. Students are expected to have college level preparation in mammalian anatomy and/or physiology (see Prerequisites below).

    The course highlights normal human histology and the functional significance of microanatomical structures. The lab and lecture portions of the course are completely integrated; both lecture and lab material will be covered during each session. The amount of time devoted to lecture or lab will vary depending on the particular topic. Lecture sessions will include brief reviews of lecture and lab material and are intended to guide students rather than to present all the required details of the course material. (This means you'll need to study the textbooks, supplement, and lab materials in addition to lecture notes.) Lecture and lab study materials will include images digitized from laser discs, CD-ROMs, World Wide Web (Internet) sites, digital images (including digitized 35 mm color slides), and microscope slides. Laboratory sessions will include some presentations by the professor as well as independent and group work using the study materials. Successful students will learn how to locate and identify normal mammalian tissues and organs using photomicrographs, microscope slides, digital images, CD-ROM, and WWW resources. Successful students will be able to use the specific and precise terminology of the field of histology.

    « To gain the most from the course (and to achieve success as measured by good grades) you will want to study in the laboratory for several hours each week in addition to the scheduled class and lab sessions.  Even though digital images can be used from anywhere on campus, the microscopes are available only in the lab room.  Also, you will want to take advantage of the benefits of having the professor and your classmates available during your study sessions. A cooperative and open atmosphere is expected during all class and lab meetings. Lecture and laboratory materials should be studied simultaneously and some use of lab time to review lecture material is expected. The laboratory will be open for extra review during posted hours. Students are encouraged to study together but no cooperation during exams is permitted.
    Prerequisites: Junior or Senior class standing. BIOL 111 and 112 (Principles of Biology I and II and their labs) and 4 additional hours of Biology. It is recommended that your previous biology courses include preparation in anatomy and/or physiology [for example,at least one of the following with lab: BIOL 212 Comparative Anatomy, BIOL 312 Vertebrate Physiology, or BIOL 217-218 Anatomy and Physiology I and II]. In addition, BIOL 211 (Embryology) is recommended and biochemistry will be helpful. Students who have not made at least a "C" in each of the prerequisites should repeat the necessary courses before attempting further course work in Biology. Students without the prerequisites must have permission of the professor or Department Chair to enroll.

    • Dr. Anna E. Ross, Professor of Biology.
      • Office: AH 111  Phone: 321-3436  (Please record a message if I'm not in the office.) 
      • E-mail: aross@cbu.edu       Home page  http://facstaff.cbu.edu/aross
        • Students are encouraged to submit questions and suggestions via email. 
        • Questions and answers that may be helpful to the class will be posted on the histology course WWW page.
      • Office Hours: Mon., Wed., Thurs., and Fri. 2:00-4:30.
        • Additional appointment times are available upon request (see posted schedule).

    Required Materials for the 2017 course
    Pawlina, Wojciech. 2016.  Histology A Text and Atlas.  7th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.  ISBN 9781451187427  Amazon.com    OR  Ross and Pawlina. 2010.  Histology A Text and Atlas.  6th ed.  ISBN: 978-0-7817-7200-6. Amazon.com   

    Eroschenko, Victor P. 2012.  diFiore's Atlas of Histology with Functional Correlations, 12th edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 9781451113419  Amazon.com  [Also acceptable: 11th ed. ISBN 978-0-7817-7057-6. Amazon.com]

    Course Supplement: 
    Ross, Anna E. 2017. BIOL 414 Animal Histology Lecture and Laboratory Course Supplement, 2017 edition. ~350 pages.  Available Jan 2017 from CBU Printing Services.

    Digital Images for CBU Histology, Biol 414:  \\winfile2\biology

    Students must provide their own disposable gloves (latex or nitrile examination gloves).

    WWW Resources: For current links, also see Moodle.   http://facstaff.cbu.edu/aross/histol.htm  Also see Web resources listed above and for each course unit.

    Student Responsibilities

    You are responsible for all information presented during lecture and laboratory sessions.  Lecture and Laboratory attendance is required.  Laboratory and class sessions will require the entire scheduled period.  Do not expect to be out of lab before the scheduled time.  Because “lecture” provides guidance for the lab work, lecture and lab work will be integrated during the 9:30 to 12:25 time period.  Additional lab work outside of scheduled times is required.  Attendance at lecture and lab exams is required.  If you miss lecture or lab for any reason, you are expected to inform me and you are responsible for making up the missed work on your own time (you must have me verify that you have made up missed lab work).  Unexcused absences will lower your grade.  Excessive absences are grounds for automatic failure.

    You will need to read the assigned text material and the appropriate lab material before you come to lecture or lab.  You will need your textbooks, atlases, and course supplement during all lecture and lab meetings.  «To be successful in this course you will want to study in the lab for several hours each week in addition to the scheduled lab times.

    Exams and Grading

    Grading scale: 90.0-100% = A, 80.0-89.9% = B, 70.0-79.9% = C,  60.0-69.9% = D, below 60.0% = F. An honor system is in effect for all lecture and lab exams. It is considered a violation of the CBU Code of Conduct to receive or give assistance during an examination. Exam questions are not returned for students to keep. However, answer keys will be available following each exam. In this course, the possession or use of old or current Moodle questions, lecture or lab examination questions or answers is considered a violation of the CBU Code of Conduct.

    The Lecture Course:

    Five lecture exams and a comprehensive final exam will be given.  Each will count 100 points (a total of 600 points for the course).  No exam may be dropped.  Makeup exams will only be available under extraordinary circumstances. «If you miss an exam without prior arrangement and fail to notify me within one hour of the scheduled exam time, you will not be eligible for a makeup exam and you will receive a zero for the missed exam.

    Lecture exams will cover the topics indicated on the attached schedule unless specific changes are announced in class.  Each exam will cover material from lecture, the text, atlases, and the course supplement.  It is expected that material studied in laboratory will be incorporated into your responses on lecture exams.  Exams will consist of specific essay questions and a few objective questions.  Exam questions may require well labeled diagrams and will always require detailed and precise responses employing the specialized terminology introduced in the course.  The comprehensive final exam will consist entirely of objective questions.

    The Laboratory Course:

    Five lab exams will be given; each will count 100 points (a total of 500 points for the course). No lab exam may be dropped.  Lab exams will be practical and will require you to identify subcellular structures, cells, tissues, organs and their structural details from microscope slides, digital images, photomicrographs, and diagrams. 
    «ALL LAB EXAMS ARE COMPREHENSIVE, but the most recent material will be emphasized. 

    «Students are cautioned that the lab exams become increasingly challenging as the course progresses « It may be impossible to make up a missed lab exam. If you miss a lab exam without prior arrangement and fail to notify me within one hour of the scheduled exam time, you will not be eligible for a makeup exam and you will receive a zero for the missed lab exam. You will also be evaluated on your effort and cooperation with other students in lab.  Early in the course, you will need to make annotated drawings and to make these available for inspection during lab sessions.  You are required to return all materials and equipment in good condition after each lab session and after open labs.  You need to report any damage to microscopes, projectors, slides, etc.  You will be charged for the replacement cost of broken or missing microscope slides or other materials.

    email: aross@cbu.edu